103_2_full - PSYC 103 Winter 2010 Lecture 2 (iii) Why study...

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Unformatted text preview: PSYC 103 Winter 2010 Lecture 2 (iii) Why study animal intelligence? (1) Intellectual curiosity •  Animals play a prominent role in humans’ lives, it is natural to want to understand them more. •  Increasing our knowledge and understanding of the world around us enriches our own lives (2) Animal welfare •  Understanding animal intelligence allows us to make better informed decisions about how best to care for animals when they are kept in captivity. (3) Relevance to humans •  Studying animals reveals shared (and unique) features of animal and human intelligence and behavior. •  Can use the “simpler” brains of animals as a model for the more “complicated” brain of humans. 2 California politicians need a psychology lesson By the 2012-2013 fiscal year, $15.4 billion will be spent on incarcerating Californians, as compared with $15.3 billion spent on educating them. 3 Observing Behavior 4 (v) Historical background (1) Romanes (1848- 1894) -  Believed that evolution resulted in a progressive development of intelligence in animals -  Collected evidence to support his claims. (2) Lloyd Morgan (1852-1936) -  Urged the use of experiments -  Examined how his dog learned to open a shut gate by lifting a latch with its head -  Concluded that animals learn by trial and error, not by reasoning 5 Historical Background Morgan’s Canon: In no case may we interpret an action as the outcome of the exercise of a higher psychical faculty, if it can be interpreted as the outcome of one which stands lower in the psychological scale. (Morgan,1894) Anthropomorphism: accounting for behavior by imputing humanlike characteristics such as conscious thought, beliefs, and will to other species Anthropocentrism: (in comparative psychology) Choosing problems to study with reference to, or is centered on, human psychology 6 Observing Behavior Naturalistic observation: observation and measurement of behavior under natural (ecological) condition, i.e. without intervention or manipulation Experimental observation: measuring behavior under conditions specifically designed by the investigator to test specific factors or variables that may influence the performance of a behavior. experience experience 7 (v) Historical background (3) Thorndike (1874-1949) -  Examined how cats escaped from a puzzle box: Measured the latency to escape. -  The decline in the latency to escape was gradual, not abrupt: clear evidence that animals did not use reasoning or thought -  Reward (e.g. food) serves to strengthen a connection between the stimulus and response From Thorndike, 1898. Law of effect: “Of several responses made to the same situation, those which are accompanied or closely followed by satisfaction to the animal will, other things being equal, be more firmly connected with the situation” 8 (v) Historical background (5) Pavlov (1849-1936) Diagram of the apparatus used by Pavlov for his study of classical conditioning with dogs (adapted from Yerkes & Morgulis, 1909). General Process Approaches Diverse learning phenomena reflect the operation of universal, elemental learning processes 1. Stimulus-Stimulus Learning Stimulus association Stimulus 2. Stimulus-Response Learning Stimulus association Response History of Learning Research: Pavlov (1849-1936) Stimulus association Stimulus History of Learning Research: Thorndike (1874-1949) Stimulus association Response Puzzle box Law of effect: Of several responses made to the same situation, those which are accompanied or closely followed by satisfaction to the animal will, other things being equal, be more firmly connected with the situation Non-associative form of learning Experience can alter “elicited” behaviors too Stimulus Habituation: a decrease in the vigor elicited behavior with repeated stimulus presentation Sensitization: an increase in the vigor elicited behavior with repeated stimulus presentation Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning Twitmyer (1902)
 Paired bell with patellar tendon tap
 • Previously neutral bell could now elicit knee jerk# Ivan Pavlov(1903) # Paired metronome with food
 • Previously neutral metronome elicited salivation.
 • Called this conditioning# Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning A conditional relationship emerges between the meaningful stimulus and the previously neutral stimulus.# US - unconditional stimulus - biologically significant
 stimulus (food)# UR - unconditional response (salivation)# CS - conditional stimulus - previously neutral
 stimulus (bell)# CR - conditional response (salivation)# Excitatory: CS signals the presence of a US Training CS Test US CS Inhibitory: CS signals the absence of a US UR CR (i) Conditioning techniques Excitatory conditioning Eye-blink conditioning •  Normally used in rabbits •  A brief CS (e.g. tone) followed by a US (e.g. cheek shock) sufficient to produce a blink. •  After a number of pairings the CS will evoke a blink when presented alone Moore (1972): Conditioned rabbits to a 1200 Hz tone and tested tones of different frequencies: generalization and generalization decrement generalization extinction 16 (i) Conditioning techniques Excitatory conditioning Autoshaping •  Commonly used in pigeons •  An acrylic panel is illuminated (CS), then food (US) is delivered into a hopper. •  After a number of pairings the pigeon will come to peck the panel acrylic panel hopper 17 Autoshaping movie (i) Conditioning techniques Excitatory conditioning Conditioned suppression •  Normally used in rats •  After learning to press a lever for food, a CS (e.g. tone) is paired with a mild shock (US). •  After several CS-US pairings, the CS will come to suppress lever pressing Stimulus CS Responses -  Suppression ratio to measure learning: a/(a+b) Where: a= lever pressing during the CS b= lever pressing during the inter-trial interval 19 Conditioned suppression movie Conditioned suppression Acquisition and extinction of conditioned suppression by rats to a 60-second conditioned stimulus (CS) that was paired with foot shock (adapted from Hall & Pearce, 1979). (i) Conditioning techniques Excitatory conditioning Taste-aversion conditioning - Normally used in rats, but has been used with a variety of animals -  Animal is made ill by being injected with lithium chloride (US) following consumption of a particular food (CS) -  After pairing the CS with the US, the animal shows an aversion to the CS -  Can be effective with only one conditioning trial -  Effective even when an interval of several hours separates the consumption of the CS with the delivery of the US 22 (i) Conditioning techniques Inhibitory conditioning CS signals the absence of US Mean suppression ratios for rats given excitatory conditioning with a tone intermixed among trials with a light-tone compound followed by nothing (adapted from Zimmer-Hart & Rescorla, 1974). (i) Conditioning techniques Inhibitory conditioning Revealed by: retardation and summation tests e.g. Pearce, Nicholas & Dickinson (1982) Group Experimental Inhibitory conditioning tone → Shock tone+light → no Shock bell → Shock Control Small CR to Tone+light compound Retardation test light → Shock Summation test bell vs. light+bell light → Shock Slower learning about light in Experimental Group than in Control Group Weaker responding to BC than to C 24 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/24/2012 for the course PSYC 103 taught by Professor Pearlberg during the Spring '07 term at UCSD.

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