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103_6_full - PSYC 103 Winter 2011 Lecture 6 Review Session...

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PSYC 103 Winter 2011 Lecture 6 Review Session Pepper Canyon Hall room 109 from 8-9:20pm on January 18th
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Establishing an Operant Response: Shaping Shaping : the gradual change from some initial behavior to some desired target response; reinforcement of successive approximations
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Shaping new responses - variability is key
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Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning Stimulus Response Outcome In Instrumental Conditioning, presentation of US depends on the animal’s behavior The response is ‘ Instrumental’ in producing the outcome. reinforcer Instrumental or Operant Behavior In pavlovian conditioning: US UR, CS US UR, CS UR
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Contingency Reinforcing consequence Pleasant Aversive Positive: Response receives reinforcer Positive reinforcement Response increases Punishment Response decreases Negative: Response prevents reinforcer Omission training: response cost Response decreases Negative reinforcement Escape Response increases R-O contingencies The Conditions of Learning
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R-O contingencies Positive Reinforcement: Delivery of a stimulus shortly following a response to increase the future probability of that response . A hungry rat presses a bar to receives food. The rat's behavior of pressing the bar is strengthened by the consequence of receiving food. Negative Reinforcement: Removal of an aversive stimulus shortly following a response to increase the future probability of that response. A rat presses a bar to stop a foot shock. Punishment: Delivery of an aversive stimulus shortly following a response to decrease the future probability of that response . A rat presses a bar and receives a mild electrical shock on its feet. Stimulus Response Outcome The Conditions of Learning
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The consequences of behavior Reinforcer any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Primary Reinforcer (typically) Pleasing stimulus Motivation: satisfies a biological need (food, water, sex, drugs) Size and Temporal proximity matter: Immediate reinforcement is most effective Secondary Reinforcers: Conditioned reinforcer: neutral stimulus paired with primary reinforcer Overcomes ineffectiveness of delayed reinforcement Marking stimulus (token reinforcer) : neutral stimulus given in lieu of Rf.
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