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Unformatted text preview: PSYC 103
Lecture 10 Review session:
Pepper Canyon Hal, room 106
Feb 4th 7:00 pm Relationships as categories
- Second-order relationship: the relationship between two other relationships
- Oden & Thompson (1988, 1990): Matching with chimps.
Sample either AA or CD
Then given choice between either: BB or EF
If sample was AA – BB rewarded
If sample was CD – EF rewarded - Chimpanzees failed to solve the problem (but then so do children!) Interestingly though, if
a chimp had played with AA, it would subsequently play with EF rather than BB.
2 Relationships as categories
e.g. as dog is to puppy, so cow is to calf
Gillan et al. (1981) tested for analogical reasoning in a Chimpanzee, Sarah, who had
been trained to use an artificial language Adapted from Gillan et al., 1981.
3 The representation of knowledge
Concrete code: a copy of the stimuli, or part of the stimuli. Equivalent to an image of
- Limited if information is more abstract — e.g. the relationship between a father and
son is hard to capture in an image
- Representation of all relationships based on abstract representations,
except those based on physical similarity, e.g. novelty
- Most animals can form concrete representations
“Only chimps can form abstract representations. Normally poorly developed in
chimps, but can be improved with training” — “representational scaffolding” 4 Pepperberg (1987):
- Trained African grey parrot (Alex) to talk
- Presented with red pentagon and red oval and asked “What same?” & “What different?”
- Alex would reply (i) colour or (ii) shape Memory
Learning and memory are integrally related; you cannot have one without the
Studies of “Learning” and “memory” focus on different stages of the information
processing pathway Memory experiments vary these Acquisition ➔ Retention ➔ Retrieval Learning experiments vary this Memory ‘structure’ “memory” is not a single process, it includes multiple ‘systems’
What are the conditions for retention?
What information is retained? Memory code
How long is it retained?
How is it expressed in behavior? Types of memory Operational definitions Short term vs. long term
Working memory: memory for specific events within a trial or task; retention of information needed to respond successfully on one trial or
• Not useful between trials.
• Limited in duration
Reference memory: memory for constant features across trials or tasks; retention of information needed to engage trial specific behaviors.
• Useful between trials
• Longer duration than working memory Recognition: Have you experienced this before?
Recall: Tell me what you remember. Recognition is most common with animal tests Memory Procedures habituation Looking time Habituation provides evidence for both short and long-term memory.
If behavior changes from one occasion to the next, memory of earlier events
must be involved The maximum response to S1 and S2 in the study by Whitlow (1975) on trials when they
were separated by intervals of 30, 60, or 150 seconds. The left-hand panel shows the
results when S1 and S2 were identical, the right-hand panel when these stimuli were
different. The measure of vasoconstriction is the increase from resting level in the output
of a plethysmograph connected to the rabbit’s ear (adapted from Whitlow, 1975). Temporal relation between CS and US
and offset This is the ISI Asynchronous onset and
offset - CS leads US Asynchronous onset and
offset - US starts after CS
ends This is the “trace interval” Trace conditioning CS
Taste aversion learning occurs with trace interval up to 12 hours w/ LiCl 12 The radial maze 13 Spatial memory
Radial Arm Maze Working or reference memory? Spatial working memory Olton & Samuelson 1976 Memory Procedures delayed response tasks
Delayed match-to-sample Delayed response Sample … retention interval … comparison stimuli Hunter (1913) retention interval: delay between stimulus and
permitted response ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/24/2012 for the course PSYC 103 taught by Professor Pearlberg during the Spring '07 term at UCSD.
- Spring '07