103_11_full - PSYC 103 Winter 2011 Lecture 11 Review...

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Unformatted text preview: PSYC 103 Winter 2011 Lecture 11 Review session: Pepper Canyon hall 106 , Feb 3rd from 6:30-7:50 Memory Learning and memory are integrally related; you cannot have one without the other Studies of “Learning” and “memory” focus on different stages of the information processing pathway Memory experiments vary these Acquisition ➔ Retention ➔ Retrieval Learning experiments vary this Memory Procedures habituation Looking time Habituation provides evidence for both short and long-term memory. If behavior changes from one occasion to the next, memory of earlier events must be involved Temporal relation between CS and US Synchronous onset and offset This is the ISI Asynchronous onset and offset - CS leads US Asynchronous onset and offset - US starts after CS ends This is the “trace interval” Trace conditioning CS US Trace interval Taste aversion learning occurs with trace interval up to 12 hours w/ LiCl 5 The radial maze 6 Spatial memory Radial Arm Maze Working or reference memory? Spatial working memory Olton & Samuelson 1976 Memory Procedures delayed response tasks DMTS Delayed match-to-sample Delayed response Sample … retention interval … comparison stimuli Hunter (1913) retention interval: delay between stimulus and permitted response DMTS Basic DMTS Spatial and stimulus controls Variations on a theme: •  Successive matching: single comparison stimulus, respond if it matches •  Delayed non-match to sample: pick the one that doesn’t match •  Delayed alternation: pick the one that you didn’t respond to last trial DMTS spikes Neural traces of memory seconds Symbolic matching Symbolic matching: each sample stimulus is associated with one (or more) arbitrary comparison stimuli Pigeons learn symbolic matching at the same rate as ‘literal’ matching tasks •  Suggests that in both cases, they learn a conditional response rule, if ‘a’ then ‘b’ Conditions for memory Memory is subject to the same forces that shape learning •  Salience •  Duration •  Frequency Acquisition ➔ Retention ➔ Retrieval (encoding) Time2 (T2) Time1 (T1) Hypothetical performance Retention/retrieval deficit encoding deficit Conditions at T1 Exposure time Longer exposure leads to better encoding •  so does presenting the sample stimulus multiple times •  or lengthening the ITI Proactive interference: disruption of recall by information learned earlier Conditions at T1 Distribution of experience Radial arm maze performance (choices 2-8) The corrected mean probability of a correct response for choices on an eight-arm radial maze when 8 test trials were given in succession (adapted from Olton, 1978). Error rates increase during successive tests on the same day Contiditions at T1: spatial memory in pigeons sample sample match match This is very hard! This is easier, but pigeons are still worse than rats in the RAM Increasing stimulus salience/disticitiveness makes the task easier (Wilke & summers 1982) (Zentall et al., 1990) Conditions at T1 Ford Dodge Honda Daisy Chevrolet Buick Toyota Distinctiveness and surprise Von Restorff effect: distinctive items are more easily remembered •  Increasing the number of distinctive features of a stimulus leads to better memory of that item. Rats do poorly when the arms of a maze all point in the same direction. • Making items more surprising, makes the item more memorable. For example, pairing a CS with food after repeated pairings with no food Events during the retention interval Retroactive interference: Decrease in performance at T2 (retrieval) due to the occurrence, during the retention interval, of items that are similar to the to-be-remembered target Habituation response to tones, in rabbits Habituation effect Habituation is abolished when a “distractor” is presented - first tone is forgotten Interference Proactive interference: disruption of recall at ‘time 2’ by information learned before the to-be-remembered item at ‘time 1’ confusing information acts here Acquisition ➔ Retention ➔ Retrieval (Time 0) ….. (Time 1) (Time 2) ‘distractor’ acts here Retroactive interference: Decrease in performance at time 2 (retrieval) due to the occurrence, during the retention interval, of items that are similar to the to-be-remembered target x study for psy103 test RETROACTIVE New learning interferes with old study for bio test take psy test time PROACTIVE Old learning interferes with new study for psy103 test x study for bio test take bio test Memory is context specific 1. Contextual stimuli guide retrieval 2. Time is a context Theory: memory decays with time, b/c context changes 3. Different memories depend differently on context Events of great significance for survival seem to be remembered better than less important ones 4. Interference occurs at the output Failure to show evidence of retention (memory) reflects the lack of appropriate contextn ….think of extinction. ...
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