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103_21_full - PSYC103 Winter2011 Lecture21 SocialLearning...

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PSYC 103 Winter 2011 Lecture 21 Social Learning
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Young chimpanzees learn how to crack nuts from adults [email protected]://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xRN‐ fHdGzUY&feature=watch_response
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Social Learning Behavioral profiles of each community are disTncTvely different, each with a [email protected] comprising many behavioral variants e.g. wood on stone, stone on stone, aimed throw, etc. Chimpanzees living to the west, but not to the east, of the Sassandra‐N'Zo river on the Ivory Coast use stones to crack nuts Suggests cultural transmission, not geneTc (Whiten et al., 1999)
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Social Learning: outline 1. Diet selecTon and foraging 2. Choosing a mate 3. Fear of predators 4. Copying behavior A. Mimicry B. ImitaTon 5. Theory of mind 6. Self‐recogniTon
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Diet selecTon and foraging Animals can learn something where to eat based upon where others eat STmulus enhancement : an increase in the tendency to approach an object as a consequence of another animal interact with it McQuoid & Galef, 1992 Training : jungle fowl placed in enclosure with several food dishes, only one of which was consistently filled with food Test : another group of fowl watched the first group, then allowed to explore enclosure Result : New group shows preference for preferred bowl of first group
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Diet selecTon and foraging Similar findings for octopi (Fiorito & [email protected], 1992) and bees (Worden & Papaj, 2005) Choosing dark ball (R) leads to food reward, white ball (W) leads to shock; observers show preference for what demonstrators learned Observer Demonstrator Demonstrator Observer Observer Demonstrator Demonstrators prefer green flowers; observers show same preference
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Diet selecTon and foraging Once animals have acquired food preferences, these preferences are oken difficult to disrupt Neophobia : a reluctance to approach something that is novel Galef, Lee, & Whisken, 2005 Training : Demonstrators eat cocoa‐ flavored food, observers choose cocoa‐flavored food Test : Observers presented with 1) different flavored foods (cocoa, cinnamon, anise, thyme) for six days, 2) demonstrators that had eaten unfamiliar food, or 3) both eaTng unfamiliar foods and interacTng with demonstrators that had eaten unfamiliar foods Result : Those foods had no measurable effect on rats’ socially learned food preferences, demonstraTng stability of socially enhanced food preferences over Tme
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Diet selecTon and foraging: ExcepTons No evidence that observer animals can learn to avoid poisonous food as a result of interacTng with a sick demonstrator that had eaten the poisonous food (Galef, McQuoid, & Whiskin, 1990). Training : e.g. Demonstrators eat cinnamon‐flavored food, then injected with LiCl and become sick. Observers then interact with poisoned demonstrators. Test : Observers presented with cocoa‐ and cinnamon‐flavored food.
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