103_24_full

103_24_full - PSYC 103 Winter 2011 Lecture 25 Communication...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: PSYC 103 Winter 2011 Lecture 25 Communication Monday, March 14 Warren Lecture Hall Room 2005 8-9:20pm Final: Friday March 19th 8AM Honey-bee communication Von Frisch (1950) -  Upon returning to the hive, a worker bee will dance on the vertical surface of a comb if she has collected food -  If food is between 50 to 100 meters away = round dance -  If food is more than 100 meters away = waggle dance round waggle -  Waggle dance provides distance and direction information about the location of food: Number of waggles related to distance from hive Direction of waggle run = constant angle to vertical. This angle corresponds to the angle (at the hive) between (a) the direction of food and (b) the sun (ii) Development of communication Is communication? Innate : Signal = unconditioned response by sender to a stimulus Reaction = unconditioned response to the signal Acquired: Could influence the message and the way in which it is received Honey-bees Von Frisch (1950) Italian bees: each waggle = food is 45 meters from hive Egyptian bees: each waggle = food is 12 meters from hive If pupae of one race are placed into the colony of another, behavior is more appropriate to the colony of their real sisters than foster sisters (ii) Development of communication Song birds Calls: Brief & monosyllabic, indicative of emotional states. Little change from generation to generation, probably genetically determined Birdsong: More complex, involving sequences of syllables and notes. Learning important Marler (1970) - Studied variations in the song of the white-crowned sparrow - Isolated birds of different ages for various intervals - Development of bird song depends upon exposure to song when between 10 and 50 days old Baptista & Petrinovich (1984, 1986) - Sparrows can still learn if older than 50 days - Can learn the song of a different species: strawberry finch Petrinovich (1988) -  Sparrows can learn any song they attend to -  Better at learning from a live tutor as the constant variation maintains attention to the song Communication Ethological model of communication: use of a ‘signal’ to influence the behavior of another individual. behavior Communication is a closed system Human Language and Animal Communication Limited vs unbounded signal sets: Most animals communicate about a limited range of items (food, sex, predators, etc) using a fixed and usually small set signals. Reference and situational freedom: Animal communication often reflects internal states. Other signals are referential, i.e.they are reliably given in the presence of an object and not under other conditions (bees chickens, monkeys). Humans can discuss events or items that have occurred in the past or may occur in the future. This is called situational freedom or displacement. Intentionality: Humans generally use language with the intent of informing (e.g. clarification), by suiting our communication to the audience and modifying it based on whether or not it is having its intended effects. There is no solid evidence that other animals do this. 1.[b]-big 2.[C]-chip 3.[d]-door 4.[D]-then 5.[f]-fish 6.[g]-goat 7.[h]-house 8.[j]-jack 9.[k]-cat, kit 10.[l]-lamp 11.[m]-map 12.[n]-near 13.[N]-sing 14.[p]-pear 15.[r]-road 16.[s]-state 17.[S]-sheep 17.[t]-truck 18.[v]-vent 19.[w]-wet 20.[y]-yet 21.[z]-zoo 22.[Z]-genre, vision, measure 23.[a]-cat 24.[e]-set 25.[i]-sit 26.[o]-corn, fork, four 27.[u]-cut, stuck, struck, front 28.[A]-plate 29.[E]-meet 30.[I]-fight 31.[O]-boat 32.[jU]-mute 33.[oo]-wood 34.[U]-food 35.[ou]-loud 36.[oi]-void 37.[A:]-shot, caught, father, balm, talk, tall, law, slaw, follow, dollar, car, hard, part, sharp 38.[3r']-bird, word, burn, fern 39.[..]-arrest, again, away, afire 40.[..r']-center, theater, realtor, inventor Communication Cognitive model of communication: use of a ‘signal’ to influence the understanding of another individual. •  Uses higher-order intentionality •  Referential, i.e. not exclusively about internal states Non-human referential communication Vervet monkey alarm calls Criteria for functional reference 1.  Appropriate stimulus elicits the appropriate call 2.  Each alarm call by itself elicits appropriate behavior in receivers Human Language and Animal Communication Limited vs unbounded signal sets: Most animals communicate about a limited range of items (food, sex, predators, etc) using a fixed and usually small set signals. Reference and situational freedom: Animal communication often reflects internal states. Other signals are referential, i.e.they are reliably given in the presence of an object and not under other conditions (bees chickens, monkeys). Humans can discuss events or items that have occurred in the past or may occur in the future. This is called situational freedom or displacement. Intentionality: Humans generally use language with the intent of informing (e.g. clarification), by suiting our communication to the audience and modifying it based on whether or not it is having its intended effects. There is no solid evidence that other animals do this. Functional Reference Alarm calls in chickens (one for aerial predators, one for ground predators) Different calls elicit different behaviors Functional reference •  Subjects make appropriate calls for each predator •  Calls have reliable effects on audience birds. •  Roosters call more when they can see a hen nearby. These calls satisfy the criteria for functional reference Leopard alarm calling Leopard alarm calling Vervet monkey alarm calls Acoustically distinct calls are given when sighting different classes of predators •  Vocal production is not learned •  Appropriate use is learned during first 4 years (ii) Development of communication Vervet monkeys -  Cheyney & Seyfarth (1988): Different alarm calls made by vervet monkeys to predators Predator Eagle Leopard Python Signal Chuckle Loud bark High-pitched chuttering Troop response Look up, or flee into a bush Flee into a tree Look around, and mob the snake -  Playback of recorded calls will also elicit these responses Seyfarth & Cheyney (1986) - Played a tape of an eagle alarm call whenever an infant was alone - At first, infant was startled, and searched for its mother - Later, infant watched responses of its mother, and then copied them Different calls elicit different behaviors in receivers Development of communication Vervet monkeys: the significance of signals Do the alarm calls do anything more than evoke a UR in the receiver? - Seyfarth & Cheney (2003) Alarm call elicits a representation of the predator Has the same effect as if the predator was actually there - Zuberbuhler, Cheney & Seyfarth (1999) Diana monkeys presented (via a loudspeaker) with (1) Growls of a leopard + (2) leopard alarm call or (1) Shrieks of an eagle + (2) eagle alarm call On baseline trials, trials (1) and (2) were the same (e.g. both leopard growl) – weak response to second trial On test trials, trials (1) and (2) were different (alarm call, then leopard) – weak response to second trial Call rate Call rate - Zuberbuhler, Cheney & Seyfarth (1999) Do vervet calls have meaning? Measure habituation/“dishabituation” between different calls that are used in the same context (i.e. different sound - same meaning) Transfer across call types Individual recognition; No transfer Do vervet calls have meaning? Habituation transfers across calls from different species! Duration of response Call listed first is “habituation” Second is “control” & “test” Vervets treat starling alarm calls similarly to vervet alarms Show audience effect (like chickens) Suggests an internal representation of the referent Human Language and Animal Communication Limited vs unbounded signal sets: Most animals communicate about a limited range of items (food, sex, predators, etc) using a fixed and usually small set signals. Reference and situational freedom: Animal communication often reflects internal states. Other signals are referential, i.e.they are reliably given in the presence of an object and not under other conditions (bees chickens, monkeys). Humans can discuss events or items that have occurred in the past or may occur in the future. This is called situational freedom or displacement. Intentionality: Humans generally use language with the intent of informing (e.g. clarification), by suiting our communication to the audience and modifying it based on whether or not it is having its intended effects. There is no solid evidence that other animals do this. Development of communication Communication and intention Is animal communication made with the intention of passing on knowledge to the receiver? - If communication is intentional, animals should signal more when near conspecifics: Marler et al (1990) jungle fowl Sherman (1977) ground squirrels Cheney & Seyfarth (1990) vervet monkeys Show an audience effect - The audience effect may, however, reflect nothing more than an innate disposition to make calls in the presence of conspecifics. Hostetter, Cantero & Hopkins (2001): - Trainers held out a banana to chimps that was just out of reach - If trainer facing chimp: chimp held out its hand - If trainer had back to chimp: chimp vocalized - A consequence of trial and error learning? 24 ...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online