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Unformatted text preview: sing a fixed and
usually small set signals.
Reference and situational freedom: Animal communication often
reflects internal states. Other signals are referential, i.e.they are reliably
given in the presence of an object and not under other conditions (bees
chickens, monkeys). Humans can discuss events or items that have
occurred in the past or may occur in the future. This is called situational
freedom or displacement.
Intentionality: Humans generally use language with the intent of
informing (e.g. clarification), by suiting our communication to the
audience and modifying it based on whether or not it is having its
intended effects. There is no solid evidence that other animals do this. Functional Reference
Alarm calls in chickens (one for aerial predators, one for ground predators) Different calls elicit different behaviors Functional reference • Subjects make appropriate calls for each predator
• Calls have reliable effects on audience birds....
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This note was uploaded on 03/24/2012 for the course PSYC 103 taught by Professor Pearlberg during the Spring '07 term at UCSD.
- Spring '07