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Unformatted text preview: GROUPS: SUPPLEMENTARY TOPICS Theorem (see Proposition 2.59, page 172): If G is a finite abelian group, then G has a subgroup of order d for every divisor d of  G  . Theorem (Cayley) (see Theorem 2.66, page 178): Every group G is isomorphic to a subgroup of the symmetric group S G . In particular, if  G  = n, then G is isomorphic to a subgroup of S n . Proof : For each a ∈ G, define τ a : G→ G by τ a ( x ) = ax for every x ∈ G (note that if a 6 = 1 , then τ a is not a homomorphism, since τ a (1) = a · 1 = a 6 = 1). We show that τ a is a permutation (bijection) of elements from G. In fact, first note that for any a, b ∈ G we have ( τ a ◦ τ b )( x ) = τ a ( τ b ( x )) = τ a ( bx ) = a ( bx ) = ( ab ) x = τ ab ( x ) , so τ a τ b = τ ab . It follows that each τ a is a bijection, since its inverse is τ a 1 : τ a τ a 1 = τ aa 1 = τ 1 = 1 G = τ a 1 a , and so τ a ∈ S G , i.e. τ is a permutation. Define ϕ : G→ S G by ϕ ( a ) = τ a . Rewriting, we get ϕ ( a ) ϕ ( b ) = τ a τ b = τ ab = ϕ ( ab ) , so that ϕ is a homomorphism. Finally, ϕ is an injection. If ϕ ( a ) = ϕ ( b ) , then τ a = τ b , which means τ a ( x ) = τ b ( x ) for all x ∈ G ; in particular, when...
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This note was uploaded on 03/24/2012 for the course MATH 203 taught by Professor Ankit during the Spring '12 term at Evergreen.
 Spring '12
 ankit
 Algebra

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