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Bio chpt 4 - Biology Reading guide Instructions These...

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Biology Reading guide Instructions: These reading guides are not assignments. There is an incredible benefit to using them however because often the questions from here become exam questions. The answers to book questions can be found in the back of the book. 1 st hour exam covers Ch. 3 & 4. This is the guide for chapter 4: Ch. 4: This chapter covers the fundamentals of how cells use molecules to do work. All life does some variation on these processes to get things done. Reading to focus on: Concept 4.3 – o Structure and function of ATP - Come up with some metaphor for ATP’s function that works for you. Gasoline, darts (book metaphor), whatever. PG 87 o An overview of cellular respiration - Most of this is contained in the “closer look” section, but the basic parts of it are in fig. 4.15. Glucose and ADP gets fed into the process, while water, CO2, and ATP comes out. Step 1: Glycolysis. Glycolysis is the enzymatic conversion of glucose into two pyruvic acid molecules. The pyruvic acid molecules are further broken down in the mitochondrion. WHERE: outside of any organelle in the fluid cytosol then the mitochondrion. GOES IN: two 3-carbon glucose pyruvic acid molecules. COMES OUT: 2 molecules of ATP Step 2: Citric Acid Cycle – The 3-carbon glucose pyruvic acid molecules generated by glycolysis are decarboxylated, leaving a 2-carbon molecule that enters the CAC within the mitochondrial matrix. The 2-carbon fragment reacts with that results in a 4-carbon OAA molecule and proceeds through a stepwise series of reactions that results in the production of more carbon dioxide and regenerates OAA. NADH and two ATP are also produced. Step 3: The Electron Transport Chain –The main ETC proteins are nothing more than pumps that use up all of the electron’s energy to pump hydrogen atoms from the matrix to the intermembrane space. This is like taking water out of the Chatahoochee River below the Lake Lanier dam and then pumping it right back into the lake. The big turbine in the dam is like the ATP synthase protein embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. All those hydrogen ions want to flow back into the matrix where there are fewer hydrogen ions. The action of their movement drives the synthase protein to make ATP.
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