1. Introduction; Historical Context

1. Introduction; Historical Context - Buddhism, An...

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Buddhism, An Introduction (I, Historical Context) (I) The Rise of Buddhism and Its source in Ancient India: Some General Remarks on Buddhism’s Ties with Vedaism-Hinduism 1) consistence with the Vedic tradition: a) Shared some fundamental concepts and categories: dharma - karma - samsara - moksa dharma – law karma – destiny samsara – transmigration moksa - liberation b) introspectiveness: shared the introspective orientation (i.e. to seek the sources of human problems and the solutions to them from inside, rather than outside) —presenting a rather stark contrast to the Western religious traditions c) placed a great deal of importance on dhyana (meditation, contemplation and visualization, etc.) 2) departure from the Vedic tradition: a) presupposition of the existence of an ontological entity (Brahman) Epistemologically emphasizes the non-substantiality of the world and the ineffability of the reality b) Atman (self, soul; take soul as the individualized Brahman) anatman (non-self, a “religion without soul”) c) Ritualism (sacrifice is an effective way to invite the divine grace, which is in turn a guarantee of one’s moksha [liberation]) anti-ritualism (rituals, sacrifices won’t bring about liberation) d) Metaphysics (very complicated metaphysical system) pragmatism (Classical Buddhism: human beings have more urgent concerns than metaphysical curiosity, but Sectarian Buddhism
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1. Introduction; Historical Context - Buddhism, An...

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