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4. Confucianism and Taoism

4. Confucianism and Taoism - Confucianism and Taoism Two...

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Confucianism and Taoism: Two Traditions Interacting with Buddhism Part I Confucianism: A Historical Survey and Doctrinal Introduction I) Intellectual Background 1) Tian 天 (Heaven, God, Nature) and Ren 天 (human): The Chinese understanding of Human and Nature 2) “Heavenly Mandate” -- the basis of Chinese Political Science 3) Yin-yang and wuxing (five-agents): The Fundamentals of Chinese cosmology A) yin and yang as the negative and positive aspect of the universe: B) from yin-ying to eight trigrams to sixty-four hexagrams (the fundamentals of the Yijing Philosophy) C) Five Agents (Metal 天, Wood 天, Water 天, Fire 天, Earth 天) and Their Interrelationships (Mutual origination and conquering): a) Mutual origination: WOOD=>FIRE=>EARTH=>METAL=>WATER=>WOOD b) mutual Conquering: WATER=>FIRE=>METAL=>WOOD=>EARTH=>WATER D) A cosmological framework in terms of the fivefold paralleling of five agents: Wu Xing number and polarity Colour Season weather Direction yin and yang organs emotion taste shape movement quality Earth 5/10 - Tao yellow, brown late summer humid center Spleen and Stomach meditation sweet cubic attracts and concentrates stable Metal 4/9 - senior yang white, Golden, Silver autumn dry west Lungs and Large Intestine worry, sorrow pungent Spherical pierce inwards sharp and pointing. Wood 3/8- junior yin green or blue spring windy east Liver and Gall Bladder anger sour Rod like or beam like grows upwards enduring Fire 2/7 - junior yang red, Orange, Purple, Pink summer hot south Heart and Small Intestine joy bitter Triangular spreads in all directions, radiant and hot Water 1/6 senior yin black, dark blue winter cold north Kidney and Bladder fear salty wavy runs downwards liberal II) Confucius (551-479BC) and Mencius (371-289 BCE ?), the Eastern Socrates (469-399BC) and Plato (427- 347BC) 1) “Education without discrimination”: Confucius as a great educator 2) Love and Harmony: Confucius as a great Humanitarian
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