Ch05 - Supplementary Slides for Software Engineering: A...

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Unformatted text preview: Supplementary Slides for Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach, 6/e Part 2 copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc. For University Use Only May be reproduced ONLY for student use at the university level when used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach. Any other reproduction or use is expressly prohibited. This presentation, slides, or hardcopy may NOT be used for short courses, industry seminars, or consulting purposes. These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 1 Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e Chapter 5 Practice: A Generic View copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc. For University Use Only May be reproduced ONLY for student use at the university level when used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach. Any other reproduction or use is expressly prohibited. These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 2 What is “Practice”? Practice is a broad array of concepts, principles, methods, and tools that you must consider as software is planned and developed. It represents the details—the technical considerations and how to’s—that are below the surface of the software process—the things that you’ll need to actually build high­quality computer software. These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 3 The Essence of Practice George Polya, in a book written in 1945 (!), describes the essence of software engineering practice … Understand the problem (communication and analysis). Plan a solution (modeling and software design). Carry out the plan (code generation). Examine the result for accuracy (testing and quality assurance). At its core, good practice is common­sense problem solving These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 4 Core Software Engineering Principles Provide value to the customer and the user KIS—keep it simple! Maintain the product and project “vision” What you produce, others will consume Be open to the future Plan ahead for reuse Think! These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 5 Software Engineering Practices Consider the generic process framework Communication Planning Modeling Construction Deployment Here, we’ll identify Underlying principles How to initiate the practice An abbreviated task set These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 6 Communication Practices Principles Listen Prepare before you communicate Facilitate the communication Face­to­face is best Take notes and document decisions Collaborate with the customer Stay focused Draw pictures when things are unclear Move on … Negotiation works best when both parties win. These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 7 Communication Practices Initiation The parties should be physically close to one another Make sure communication is interactive Create solid team “ecosystems” Use the right team structure An abbreviated task set Identify who it is you need to speak with Define the best mechanism for communication Establish overall goals and objectives and define the scope Get more detailed Have stakeholders define scenarios for usage Extract major functions/features Review the results with all stakeholders These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 8 Planning Practices Principles Understand the project scope Involve the customer (and other stakeholders) Recognize that planning is iterative Estimate based on what you know Consider risk Be realistic Adjust granularity as you plan Define how quality will be achieved Define how you’ll accommodate changes Track what you’ve planned These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 9 Planning Practices Initiation Ask Boehm’s questions Why is the system begin developed? What will be done? When will it be accomplished? Who is responsible? Where are they located (organizationally)? How will the job be done technically and managerially? How much of each resource is needed? These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 10 Planning Practices An abbreviated task set Re­assess project scope Assess risks Evaluate functions/features Consider infrastructure functions/features Create a coarse granularity plan Number of software increments Overall schedule Delivery dates for increments Create fine granularity plan for first increment Track progress These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 11 Modeling Practices We create models to gain a better understanding of the actual entity to be built Analysis models represent the customer requirements by depicting the software in three different domains: the information domain, the functional domain, and the behavioral domain. Design models represent characteristics of the software that help practitioners to construct it effectively: the architecture, the user interface, and component­level detail. These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 12 Analysis Modeling Practices Analysis modelingprinciples Represent the information domain Represent software functions Represent software behavior Partition these representations Move from essence toward implementation Elements of the analysis model (Chapter 8) Data model Flow model Class model Behavior model These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 13 Design Modeling Practices Principles Design must be traceable to the analysis model Always consider architecture Focus on the design of data Interfaces (both user and internal) must be designed Components should exhibit functional independence Components should be loosely coupled Design representation should be easily understood The design model should be developed iteratively Elements of the design model Data design Architectural design Component design Interface design These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 14 Construction Practices Preparation principles: Before you write one line of code, be sure you: Understand of the problem you’re trying to solve (see communication and modeling) Understand basic design principles and concepts. Pick a programming language that meets the needs of the software to be built and the environment in which it will operate. Select a programming environment that provides tools that will make your work easier. Create a set of unit tests that will be applied once the component you code is completed. These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 15 Construction Practices Coding principles: As you begin writing code, be sure you: Constrain your algorithms by following structured programming [BOH00] practice. Select data structures that will meet the needs of the design. Understand the software architecture and create interfaces that are consistent with it. Keep conditional logic as simple as possible. Create nested loops in a way that makes them easily testable. Select meaningful variable names and follow other local coding standards. Write code that is self­documenting. Create a visual layout (e.g., indentation and blank lines) that aids understanding. These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 16 Construction Practices Validation Principles: After you’ve completed your first coding pass, be sure you: Conduct a code walkthrough when appropriate. Perform unit tests and correct errors you’ve uncovered. Refactor the code. These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 17 Construction Practices Testing Principles All tests should be traceable to requirements Tests should be planned The Pareto Principle applies to testing Testing begins “in the small” and moves toward “in the large” Exhaustive testing is not possible These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 18 Deployment Practices Principles Manage customer expectations for each increment A complete delivery package should be assembled and tested A support regime should be established Instructional materials must be provided to end­users Buggy software should be fixed first, delivered later These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. 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