Exam 2 Review Sheet

Exam 2 Review Sheet - Exam 2 Review Sheet Problem of Evil...

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Exam 2 Review Sheet Problem of Evil - the question of how to explain evil (perversion of the will) if there exists a deity that is omnibenevolent, omnipotent, and omniscient (all loving, all power, all knowing). Such a being should be able to prevent all evil; the two are mutually exclusive. Augustine believed that free will is a good, necessary for doing well, but as such, it can be directed to evil. It is not God’s fault that humans sinned and that, consequently, moral evil exists; God does intervene. When we are rescued from sin, we appreciate our relationship with God more fully than we would have had we not sinned. There is a tremendous contrast between being lost and tossed on the restless sea of life. Natural Evil - evil present in the natural world such as natural disasters Moral evil – evil caused by the will of human beings Problem of evil and suffering is void because God did not create evil; it was man who chose to deviate from the path of perfect goodness. Controversy: Genetics is not a moral choice of human beings Mutually Exclusive – Two things cannot coexist. Augustine. Learned in context of the problem of evil. Free will – Augustine. Learned in context of the problem of evil. Humans can act independent of God, free to prioritize things in their lives. Materialism – Only physical matter and its properties exist. Hobbes believed that all reality except God is material. Psychology is reduced to physiology, as all reality can be scientifically addressed. Changes in your mental state reflect a change in your physical state. Nature consists of bodies in motion, and humans are merely machines. We do not know God well enough to deem him material or spirit. Psychological Egoism – Hobbes: It is in human nature to be selfish. Life in the state of nature is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short. We all have the ability to kill, and we all want to achieve the same goals such as food, shelter, glory, security, power, wealth, etc. The fact that we have equal ability to harm and the desire to satisfy goals leads to an unstable state. This is why we need morality and government to maintain peace and happiness. State of Nature: Existence without human government or laws Hobbes – We are all egoists. Life in the state of nature is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short. We all have the ability to kill, and we all want to achieve the same goals such as food, shelter, glory, security, power, wealth, etc. The fact that we have equal ability to harm and the desire to satisfy goals leads to an unstable state. This is why we need morality and government to maintain peace and happiness (the leviathan, the state, the ruler).
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Rousseau – Humans are self-interested beings who care about their own happiness but who also have a natural repugnance to seeing anyone perish or suffer (egoism balanced by sympathy which in proper circumstances can override selfishness). Humans are noble (compassionate) savages (without laws) that are uncorrupted by society. Humans
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