Newsgroup Posting # 3
Find an article that relates to topics in chapters 1-5 Burdain regarding a Typhoid
outbreak/Incident (from 1900- now) and write a short summary and post in the Discussion Board
for review and comments.
I am writing about a typhoid outbreak in Tajikistan, the article is dated 28 Oct 2003. The
outbreak rapidly spread thought the country. Especially the capital, Typhoid is an endemic
disease in that area.
“All available hospital beds in this remote mountain capital are occupied by
victims of a typhoid outbreak which is reported to be spreading rapidly. Typhoid, a water-born
infection, has been virtually endemic in Tajikistan for a decade or more. In the nine months to the
end of September, 545 cases were diagnosed in hospitals in Dushanbe. In the first 19 days of
October, 235 new cases were confirmed, as well as 530 suspected cases.” (1)
Living conditions in
Tajikistan are below cleaning standards, specially the poor outskirts and rural areas, the water
distribution system in mainly based on wells and rivers, what makes contamination a certain fact.
As we known the typhoid bacteria can be encountered anywhere in the world, and transmission is
associated by ingestion of food or water contaminated with feces, urine or bodily fluid from a
person contaminated by the bacteria.
The main problem with the Tajikistan outbreak is the number of affected victims, because
this high number of infected people will consequently bring a work load to hospital above the
normal expectancy, and the reflection to the problem will be the utilization of pretty much all
hospital beds, what many can call a massive mobilization of doctors, hospital beds and other
emergency services that consequently will cause on possible failure to the disease treatment. There
are no real positive factors on a typhoid outbreak, however in the case of Tajikistan, “
causes vomiting, stomach cramps and diarrhea - it can kill the old, the young and those who are
already weakened. Many Tajiks, however, have developed a degree of resistance to it.” (2)
Typhoid has largely disappeared as an active disease due to better sanitation practices done
around the industrialized world, but many sporadic outbreaks still occur around the world.
Typhoid is a serious and deadly disease, but nowadays the most occurrences are pin pointed to
poor nations, where the sanitation practices are below expectancy. Typhoid was a major killer in
olden days, “(wells and outhouses shared the same water tables).” (3)
The typhoid outbreak in Tajikistan can be explained to the deterioration of living conditions,
environment, and pollution of natural resources, being the water the main natural resource
directly related to a outbreak of typhoid in a country were the disease is endemic, according to
some facts from the CIA fact book the Tajikistan outbreak and understand to the disease can be
understood by these minimal information provided in this essay “inadequate sanitation facilities;