Chapter 24 CHEM 140B

Chapter 24 CHEM 140B - Chapter 24: Carbohydrates I....

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Chapter 24: Carbohydrates I. Structure and Properties A. General Formula = C n (H 2 O) n B. Carbohydrates is general name for sugars (aka saccardies) C. Sugars are carbon chains with one carbonyl group with hydroxyl groups on all other carbons D. Types of carbonyl D.1.Aldehydes are called aldose D.2.Ketones are called ketose II. Conformations A. Fischer Projections A.1.Carbohydrates can be drawn in many different ways B. Cyclic Fischer B.1.When an aldehyde is place in an alcohol solvent, a hemiacetal is produced B.2.Generally the hemiacetal is not favored but when the aldehyde & alcohol exist in the same molecule a 5/6 membered ring closure is favored B.3.Aldehyde and ketones are planar (sp 2 ) so the alcohol can attack from either side giving two products B.4.Anomer – stereoisomer that differs only at the anomeric carbon B.5.Epimer – two diastereomers that differ only at one stereocenter C. Haworth Projections C.1.The carbon in the carbonyl is the anomeric carbon C.2.The newly formed OH group can be either up (α) or down (β) C.3.Mechanism
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D. Chair Conformation
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Chapter 24 CHEM 140B - Chapter 24: Carbohydrates I....

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