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Tutor _ Review _ Exam I - 1 What is an"argument in...

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1. What is an "argument" in philosophy? A set of claims one of which, called the  conclusion , is said to be supported by the other claims,  called the  premises . 2. Define the terms "valid" and "sound" Two key terms for evaluating arguments are:  1. Valid Argument:  if the premises are true, then it is logically impossible for the conclusion to be  false.  If A, then B A              . Hence, B 2. Sound Argument:  a valid argument that contains only true premises. 3. Give an example of a valid argument and a sound argument. Valid: If the moon is made of cheese, then we should harvest the cheese The moon is made of cheese. Hence, we should harvest the cheese. Valid but not sound Sound: If you live in Texas, you live in the United States. Ian lives in Texas. Hence, he lives in the United States. 4. Set out the premises and conclusion for "Benefits Argument" in the baby Theresa case. If we can benefit someone, without harming anyone else, we ought to do so.  Transplanting the organs would benefit the other children without harming Baby Theresa.  Therefore, we ought to transplant the organs. a. Sketch the “we should not use people as means” argument against  harvesting Baby Theresa’s organs.  a.i. If we use someone only as a means, we do something that is morally wrong Taking Theresa’s organs would be using her only as a means to benefit other children Therefore, it would be morally wrong to take Theresa's organs 5. Set out the premises and conclusion for "The Wrongfulness of Killing Argument" in the baby Theresa case. If we harvested Theresa's organs, then we would be killing one innocent person to save another. We should not kill one innocent person to save another. Therefore, we should not harvest Theresa's organs. 6. What is a "slippery slope" argument? If we permit any sort of mercy killing, we will have stepped onto a dangerous “slippery slope” down which we will inevitably slide. The mercy killing of Tracy was permissible. Hence, we have stepped onto a dangerous slippery slope (which will lead to the view that all life is cheap). 7. What does Rachels say are two essential components of any credible moral theory? Reason and Impartiality
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Rachel’s Minimum conception Reason / Rationality – Universal system of logic: Valid / Sound Impartiality – give equal consideration / Allows discrimination based on relevant differences Morality is, at the very least, the effort to guide one’s conduct by reason—that is, to do  what there are the best reasons for doing—while giving equal weight to the interests of each individual  affected by one’s decision.   8. What are some reasons against letting one's moral decisions be guided by only one's feelings?
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