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Chapter 1 - Intro and History - Chapter 1 Psychology The...

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Chapter 1 Psychology: The Evolution Of A Science Psychology’s Roots: The Path to a Science of Mind Psychology : the scientific study of the mind and behavior. Mind : our private inner experience of perceptions, thoughts, memories, and feelings. Behavior : observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals. Psychology’s Ancestors: The Great Philosophers Plato (428 BC-347 BC) nativism : the philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn. Aristotle (384 BC-322 BC) tabula rasa : blank slate. philosophical empiricism : the philosophical view that all knowledge is acquired through experience. From the Brain to the Mind: The French Connection Rene’ Descartes (1596-1650) dualism : how mental activity can be reconciled and coordinated with physical behavior. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) the mind is what the body does. From the Brain to the Mind: The French Connection Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) phrenology : specific mental abilities and characteristics are localized in specific regions of the brain. Paul Broca (1825-1880) Broca’s area : damage to this location causes impairments in language production, but not comprehension. From Physiology to Psychology: A New Science is Born William James (1842-1910) functionalism applied scientific approach to psychology. Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894) physiology : the study of biological processes, especially in the human body. stimulus : sensory input from the environment. reaction time : the amount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulus. From Physiology to Psychology: A New Science is Born Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) founded the first psychological laboratory. consciousness : a person’s subjective experience of the world and the mind. structuralism : the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind. introspection : the subjective observation of one’s own experience.
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