Chapter 3 _ Neuropsychology - Schacter Gilbert Wegner...

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Chapter 3 Neuroscience And Behavior PSYCHOLOGY Schacter Gilbert Wegner
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Parts of a Neuron Neuron: cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information-processing tasks (approx. 100 billion neurons in the brain). cell body : coordinates information-processing tasks and keeps the cell alive. dendrites : receives information from other neurons and relays it to the cell body. axon : transmits information to other neurons, muscles, or glands. myelin sheath : insulating layer of fatty material. nodes of Ranvier synapse : the junction or region between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another.
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Figure 3.1 : Components of a Neuron ( p. 56 )
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Types of Neurons and Cells Glial cells : support cells found in the nervous system. Sensory neurons : neurons that receive information from the external world and convey this information to the brain via the spinal cord. Motor neurons : neurons that carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to induce movement. Interneurons : neurons that connect sensory neurons, motor neurons, or other interneurons.
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Electric Signaling: Communicating Information Within a Neuron The communication of information within and between neurons proceeds in two stages: 1. conduction of an electric signal within a neuron from dendrite to cell body and axon. 2. transmission of electric signals between neurons over the synapse. Ions : small electrically charged molecules that flow in and out of the cell.
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Figure 3.2 : The Synapse ( p. 58 )
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Electric Signaling: Communicating Information Within a Neuron Resting potential : the difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neuron’s cell membrane. When the neuron is at rest, positively charged potassium ions (K+) flow out. Cell is negatively charged (-70 millivolts). Action potential : an electric signal that is conducted along an axon to a synapse. Occurs only when threshold for stimulation is reached; all-or- none . During action potential, positively charged sodium ions (Na+) flow in. Cell is positively charged (+40 millivolts). Refractory period : the time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated.
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Figure 3.3 : The Action Potential ( p. 59 )
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Figure 3.4 : Myelin and Nodes of Ranvier ( p. 60 )
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Chemical Signaling: Synaptic Transmission Between Neurons An action potential reaches the end of an axon at the terminal button and a neurotransmitter is released into the synapse, collected at the receptor of the receiving neuron. terminal buttons : knoblike structures that branch out from an axon. neurotransmitters : chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neuron’s dendrites. receptors
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2012 for the course PSYC 2305 taught by Professor Steven during the Spring '10 term at Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi.

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Chapter 3 _ Neuropsychology - Schacter Gilbert Wegner...

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