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Chapter 2 - Methods - Schacter Gilbert Wegner PSYCHOLOGY...

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Chapter 2 The Methods Of Psychology PSYCHOLOGY Schacter Gilbert Wegner
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Empiricism: How to Know Things Three things that make people especially difficult to study: Complexity Variability Reactivity
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3 Empiricism: How to Know Things Dogmatism : the tendency for people to cling to their assumptions. Empiricism : any attempt to acquire knowledge by observing objects or events. Method : a set of rules and techniques for observation.
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Measurement Observe : use your senses to learn about something’s properties. Operational definition : a description of an abstract property in terms of a concrete condition that can be measured. Measure : a device that can detect the measurable events to which an operational definition refers.
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Figure 2.1 : Sources of Invalidity ( p. 36 )
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Measurement Prerequisites for accurate measurement: validity : the characteristic of an observation that allows one to draw accurate inferences from it. reliability : the tendency for a measure to produce the same result whenever it is used to measure the same thing. power : the tendency for a measure to produce different results when it is used to measure different things.
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Samples Case method : a method of gathering scientific knowledge by studying a single individual. Population : the complete collection of participants who might possibly be measured. sample : the partial collection of people who actually were measured in a study.
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Demand Characteristics Demand characteristics : those aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think an observer wants or expects them to behave.
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