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Unformatted text preview: Terms for "Reconstruction and the Rise of the New South" Black Codes Union Leagues Ku Klux Klan KKK Act (1871) SlaughterHouse cases Compromise of 1877 The "New South" ShareCropping Crop Lien System "Debt Peonage" Planter/Merchants Last Time National Political Agenda What to do with States that left Union? What to do with (now) U.S. Citizens who used to be property? What are the proper powers for U.S. Congress in defining freedom and opportunity? The President? The States? Big Questions for 1302 What were the critical social and economic factors that influenced the success or failure of Reconstruction in the South? How does Southern society change as a result of the Civil War? Central Questions Who will work the land in the Reconstructed South? Who is a proper "citizen" in the Reconstructed South? Planter Elite "Freedmen" (male and female former slaves) Northern Capitalists Competing Populations Northern and Southern Liberals (Republican) White Southerners (non elites) Goals of Freedmen Reconstruct their families Human dignity No coercive labor system Independence and citizenship Be left alone! This is Thomas Jefferson's "yeoman farmer" Institutions of the Freedman Freedman's Bureau Black Churches Union Leagues Baptist Methodist Very much aware of the stakes Rapid growth after 1st Reconstruction Act of 1867 "We claim exactly the same rights, privileges and immunities as are enjoyed by white men -- we ask nothing more and will be content with nothing less. . . . The law no longer knows white nor black, but simply men, and consequently we are entitled to ride in public conveyances, hold office, sit on juries and do everything else which we have in the past been prevented from doing solely on the ground of color." Results of Black Activism Beginnings of Real Independence Political Representation Southern Response #1: Terror Ku Klux Klan "Villain Beware Your doom is sealed death await you the Midnight Owl Screams. Revenge! Revenge!! Revenge!!! Klu Klux Klan" Southern Response #2: Legal Black Codes Southern Response #2: Legal Action SlaughterHouse cases (18691873) U.S. v. Reese (1875) "due process" only for "freedmen," not "citizens" as stated in 14th Amend. Voting Rights can't be "denied," but states can define who has this "privilege" 15th Amendment depends on state laws Political Meetings broken up by public "mobs" (not the state) 1st Amendment not violated by "states" (14th A. "due process" clause) U.S. v. Cruikshank (1875) North backs away from Radical Recon as early as 1868 By 1872, lack of political resolve Series of Scandals PostWar Recession begins Credit Mobilier (18691872) "Salary Grab" Act (1873) Whiskey Ring (1874) Trading Post Scandal (1875) Southern Response #3: Political "Redemption" 1873, sharp economic downturn 1874, Republicans lose House (1st time since 1856) "Redeemed" Democrats begin to appear in Congress Election of 1876
Rutherford B. Hayes (ROH) 4,034,000 votes 165 Electoral +20 from disputed states Samuel Tilden (DNY) 4,288,000 votes 184 Electoral "Compromise of 1877"
Republicans keep Presidency Military removed from South "Reconstruction" ends; "New South" begins "Southern Reconstruction" and the "New South" (1877-1890) Economic factors dominate Much like postWWII Europe, South welcomes N. capital once clear that social Reconstruction was over Issues shift to: Banking Railroads Industrialization Who will work land? How will staple crops be grown? Influence of Northern Banking and Credit Southern capital invested in slaves and Confederate Currency Northern Banks lend money to those institutions that promise profits Profits flow from... 1863 National Banking Act Cotton Raw materials Construction of textile mills Growth of Southern Railroads 22,000 miles laid from 1880 to 1890 alone Growth of Southern Industrialization James B. Duke Industrial Labor in the New South
Wages 40% of northern labor; mostly women and children Rise of Share-Cropping for Rural Freedmen
SingleFamily Sharecropping "Gang Labor" Sharecropping by 1880 White Farmers Drawn In Owned land Had provided for plantations and local markets Moved into international markets for cotton, rice, and tobacco Dependent on RR, credit Socio-Economic Change
Freedmen Chief Economic Asset Labor Knowledge of staple crops NonElite Whites Land Selfsufficiency New Economic Factors Need for land Need for staple crop seeds, tools, and markets Merchants Northern Capital Crop Lien Dependency: Legally tied to debt Now Reliant Upon New Economic System Outcome Planter (land owner) Sharecropping Dependency: Legally tied to land What were the critical social and economic factors that influenced the success or failure of Reconstruction in the South? The answer seems to indicate that economics, not the ideals of freedom, democracy, and republicanism, were the driving force of change (Marx?) This develops into a common theme for the era (18651900)
Regardless of race, ethnicity, or region Made even more problematic by industrialization Conclusions How does Southern society change as a result of the Civil War? Economic blight intensifies racism Seemingly, most whites and blacks had much in common by 1890 Racism fueled by this economic equality "How else" can one tell people apart? May be bad for whites, but "at least they're not black" Southern Elite barely affected economically (loss of national political power until the 20th century) The South develops into a cultural backwater lasting for the next 100 years! Similar to a colonized 3rdworld country: Educational system the worst in the country Medical and professional services the worst in the country Average income and life expectancy lowest in the country Old Confederacy locked out of national politics until 1964! Who won the Civil War? ...
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