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Unformatted text preview: "Progress" Lawrence Strike Triangle Shirtwaiste Fire SPA IWW Social Gospel Progressives "Muckrakers" NAACP (1910) John Dewey Jane Addams National Progressives Theodore Roosevelt Anthracite Coal Strike (1903) "Trust busting" Pure Food and Drug Act, 1906 Woodrow Wilson Clayton Anti-Trust Act Federal Reserve Federal Income Tax Corporate Liberal Progressives Industrial Divide Frederick Winslow Taylor Welfare Capitalism "Progressivism" Why Progressivism?
U.S. Commits to Industrial Capitalism and "modernity" Citizens "feel" that tomorrow will be much different than yesterday, a new modern "reality" is being accepted What are the assumptions of a "Modern" society (compared to those of the Gilded Age)? Newer is "Better," Older is "Worse" (Tradition?) Science leads to "Truth," "Experts" control how science is used in society (Authority & Democracy?) "Progress" and "Modernity" Influenced by Formal Discovery, the Scientific Method, and new Environmental Realities Change leads to reappraisal of basic assumptions about society What is a "good" society? What do we owe to ourselves? Who is "qualified" to make these decisions? What is "fair"? Questions for HIST-1302
Why a "Progressive Era"? What is new? Who should implement changes? New Technical Experts? An active and democratically elected Federal Government? Established Business Leaders? Is this an effort at reform or revolution? What is the end result? Examples of the birth of modernity... First powered, controlled, and sustained flight, Dec. 17, 1903, Kitty Hawk, NC. Telephone, 1854 Vacuum electric tube, 1889 Fax transmission, 1923 Working Television, 1927 Induction furnace (home), 1890 Celluloid, 1869 Artificial Leather, 1882 Rayon, 1885 Nitrogen fixation agri-chemicals (1900-1903) Aspirin, 1899 Barbital sedatives, 1903 Synthetic Adrenaline, 1910 Liquefied gas, 1877 Acetylene Welding, 1886-1901 X-Ray, 1895 Mercury vapor lamps, 1904-1906 UV Microscope, 1903 Ductile Tungsten, 1892 Diesel engine, 1888 Fine petroleum cracking, 1896 Oil and gas pipelines, 1875 Steam turbine, 1866 Alkaline storage battery, 1905 Automobile, 1880-87 Sonar, 1904 Gyrostat/gyrocompass, 1886 Airplane, 1903 Steel Skyscrapers, 1884 Elevators, 1855 Chlorinated water, 1908 Farm tractor, 1901 Motion pictures, 1892 Typewriter, 1873 Cash register, 1879 Solder-free tin can, 1903 Phonograph, 1877 Dictaphone, 1894 Sigmund Freud The Interpretation of Dreams (1909) Human psyche driven largely by non-rational impulses Albert Einstein Theory of General Relativity Space, time, and matter are all relative to the observer. There is no single or "correct" view of all three. Einstein: "Put your hand on a hot stove for a minute, and it seems like an hour. Sit with a pretty girl for an hour, and it seems like a minute. THAT'S relativity." Thomas Eakins The Gross Clinic Modern O.R., 1900
Note: lack of masks Frank Stella The Voice of the City of New York Interpreted: The Bridge Charles Sheeler, American Landscape Progressives First to "See": Environmental Cause of Poverty "See" the Costs of Political Corruption (Spoils System) "See" the Real Power of Big Business An Example of New Progressive Perspectives and Assumptions: Female Industrial Labor "Sweat Shops" "Home Work" Lawrence, MA
ILGWU Industrial Union Unskilled Members primarily women Changing Cultural View of Women "Mothers" Weaker "In need of protection" NOT TRUE of Gilded Age Response by business leaders and state of MA typical of Gilded Age "Children's Crusade Product Boycotts Use the power of new mass media Triangle Shirtwaiste Co. Triangle Shirtwaiste Fire Growing Threat of Inaction: The Socialist Party of America (SPA)
Eugene Debs Industrial Workers of the World "One Big Union" (like Knights) but not based on U.S. producerism "Progressivism" Defined
A Response to the conditions of modernity A "Search for Order" Shared Certain Traits: All Biased Optimistic White, Middle-class College Educated Three "types" (Basis for current political groupings in U.S., therefore very influential) Social Gospel Progressives National Progressives Corporate Liberal Progressives "Social Gospel" Progressives
See that significant problems exist in the U.S. Issues of economic growth less important than social equality Desire to create institutions and organizations that focus the energies of a generally wellmeaning public Interest Groups The Church Change the environmental causes of inequality Problems created by the environmental conditions, not the people themselves (Social Darwinism) "Teach a man to fish, feed him for life" Seeing the Problem: Journalism and "Muckrakers" Ida Tarbell Meatpacking Upton Sinclair, The Jungle 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act Create Organizations to Act: Interest Group Politics, NAACP W.E.B. DuBois Ida B. Wells Interest Group Politics: WCTU - Female - Protestant Christian - Native-born Change the Environment of Inequality: John Dewey
Dewey: "True learning is based on discovery guided by mentoring rather than transmission of knowledge" Progressive Education
See the child "Child Saving" Reforms Jane Addams Addams: "Old-fashioned ways which no longer apply to changed conditions are a snare in which the feet of women have always become readily entangled." Settlement House Movement Settlement House firsts: Day Care Kindergarten Regular Nursing Preventative and Pre-Natal care Vocational Training for poor women College-level courses for poor women English instruction for adults (ESL) and children In Corpus Christi, Texas
Ella Dickinson Scott Founder and 1st President of Monday Woman's Club, 18971909
Discussed current events (Hawaii, Philippines, politics!!), literature, and the arts Built "Ladies Pavilion" on Bay Shore as area for women's entertainment Donated land for Artesian Park Raised money for school supplies, fire equipment, and civic improvements Conclusions for Social Gospel Progressives
Fundamental problems exist, therefore fundamental change must occur to the way America treats its social problems Could no longer ignore (not see) the waste of life and suffering WHY talk about social programs, public aid policies, etc.? Because new MODERN America made these problems a reality Environmental problems could be corrected (optimistic) No one was "better or worse" than another; only conditions were "better or worse" Use technology and practical knowledge to solve social injustice Culturally biased against "bad" behaviors (sex, alcohol, etc.) Organizations are the key to change Problems too great for individual "character" to deal with Action at the "grass roots" level first Federal intervention certainly welcomed, but ancillary National Progressives & Federal "Experimentation" TR: "Far better it is to dare mighty things, to win glorious triumphs, even though checkered by failure, than to take rank with those poor spirits who neither enjoy nor suffer too much, because they live in the gray twilight that knows not victory nor defeat." "National" Progressives
View the federal branch of government as an under-used resource Assumes that the federal government is fundamentally a positive good Enforce the provisions of the Constitution (see questions about "original intent" revived) Actively promote the formation of regulatory agencies. Functions once but now no longer provided at the state and local levels Especially between rival economic interests Ability to be used by both parties Republicans to provide order for the marketplace Democrats to tame the excesses of the marketplace New Coalitions created that change the parties 1903 Anthracite Coal Strike TR's "Square Deal" TR: "We demand that big business give people a square deal" "Trust Busters"
J. P. Morgan, President of Northern Securities, to TR: "Send your man to meet my man and we will work this thing out". TR, President of the United States, to Morgan: "We are not rival operators". Unexpected National Progressivism TR: "To waste, to destroy, our natural resources, to skin and exhaust the land instead of using it so as to increase its usefulness, will result in undermining in the days of our children the very prosperity which we ought by right to hand down to them." TR: Conservation for "efficiency" Muir: Preservation for aesthetics Teddy Roosevelt (R) Taft Administration National Progressive Politics, 1908-1912 Promises not to run for "third term" after landslide victory in 1904 Selects William Howard Taft as successor, goes to Africa to hunt Rejects TR's style, but furthers his political agenda
16th (Income Tax) and 17th (Senators) Amendments Child Labor, Mine Safety, Tariff reduction laws (free trade) 80 Anti-trust lawsuits (TR had 25 in 6 years) 1912 Election TR Returns; rejected by Republicans; he forms Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party TR calls Taft a "fathead" with no more brains "than those of a guinea pig" Taft runs as Republican and a solid Progressive Eugene Debs runs as Socialist (900k votes), the MOST Progressive of the four Democrats nominate Woodrow Wilson (based on endorsement of William Jennings Bryan) Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921)
Personally Energetic Academic Highly Moralistic More Active Agenda than Roosevelt! Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Child Labor Laws Reduce tariffs Income tax Federal Reserve Act 8-hour day for railroad workers Clayton Act (de-criminalizes unions) "A Trust is an arrangement to get rid of competition, [by comparison] a big business is a business that has survived competition by conquering in the field of intelligence and economy. A trust does not bring efficiency to the aid of business; it buys efficiency out of business." Conclusions for National Progressives
Use active central government to blunt the hard edge of capitalism Also blunts the hard edge of workers' voting rights Connection with Social Gospel Progressives creates odd mixture of political coalitions Coalitions set the stage for the rise of the New Deal Federal government increasingly the battleground for major problems of the day The presidency rapidly amasses political power Real and important issues being debated in Washington and through elections Remember when we were talking about Civil Service Reform and Gold Standard? Corporate Liberalism
"Industrial Divide" Welfare Capitalism "Corporate Liberal" Progressives
Distrust the role of politics in business/economic decisions Do non-capitalists (W/C, M/C) have the right to interfere with the capital of others (Wealthy)? Believe the basis for success is defined by "efficiency" and profit rather than "fairness" and equality Highly individualized Given that many progressives are white men, college-educated, with better than average economic means, they neglect the head start that they have on other individual "competitors" "Welfare Capitalism"
Capitalists will provide for their workers because it is "efficient" to do so Failed town of Pullman in Gilded Age Capitalists will show "ignorant working class" how to become good middle-class Americans (moral, prescriptive, normative, hegemonic) Savings plans Control spending Co. Sporting teams Follow team rules Stock purchase plans Acceptable ownership Co. Insurance Individual responsibility Henry Ford Ford and "Fordism" Ford Labor
1913 (Charlie Chaplin work load) 416% turnover/year 1914 Ford seeks control by raising wages $5-7/day Profit sharing Health benefits Shop Floor
No talking No smoking English only Ford detectives investigate your personal life Women who marry were expected to quit Turnover falls to <1% Conclusions to Corporate Liberals
Deep hatred and distrust of federal intervention in business Largely able to control state/local governments Here is birth of modern conservatism CL's see Labor-Management relationship in terms of efficiency, not in terms of "labor" and "ownership" Owners much more willing to agree to labor's demands for wages and working conditions than to agree that labor has a legal right to strike Not hostile to welfare capitalism Henry Ford's labor and production methods prove them right "Fordism" revolutionizes the U.S. and the world More important than Marx to the lives of most workers Conclusions to "Progressivism"
1. Most Progressives want to reform the system from within, not to revolutionize the country Apply what we know from science and technology Remove illogical inefficiencies Free Americans from the worst excesses of industrial capitalism 2. To be progressive, one needs to have a moral vision of what is "right" Not something everyone agrees to! Power politics makes this problematic
Blacks & Ethnic minorities Women Foreign Policy (especially in "Third World") Conclusions (cont.)
3. Like it or not, we are today still debating the Progressive agenda Social Gospel, National, and Corporate Liberal Progressive blocs remain dominant today in American politics 4. Important to recognize what Progressives did not concern themselves with Race and discrimination (science of the day worked against this) Mixed record on Women's right to vote Conclusions (cont.)
5. Three views of Progressivism by historians: "Public Interest" Thesis (democratic progressivism)
Ordinary Americans direct government to correct worst abuses of economy Child Labor, Pure Food & Drug, Trust reform "Capture" Thesis (economic progressivism)
Big Business (not John Q. Public) gains control over government Directs law (through Lobbies) to aid largest industries Seen quite easily in the New Deal (NRA, AAA, Wagner) "Pluralist" Thesis (political progressivism)
Expansion of powerful interest groups, most of which compete for influence Advantage goes to big business, largely because they were better organized than public Not an over-whelming advantage. Often see public outrage swing the reform in contrary direction ...
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