Unformatted text preview: Terms for Panama Canal (1903-1914) Alfred Thayer Mahan WWI (1914-1918) Great White Fleet Imperialism Lusitania (1915) "Yellow Journalism" "Preparedness" Spanish American War (1898) and WWI Zimmerman Telegram Platt Amendment (1901) "Gunboat Diplomacy" Roosevelt Corollary (1903) Open Door Notes (1899-1900) Espionage Act (1917) 14 Points Versailles Treaty U.S. Regiment [Winter?] 1917-1918 But first: American Foreign Policy 101 Early National Period: 1789-1815 Period: 1815-1861 "No foreign entanglements" was intended to isolate fragile nature of republican politics Antebellum
Internal Empire solidified (largely from Mexico) Civil War ends expansion (for a bit) Gilded Age: 1865-1890s Indian Wars Growth of international markets for manufactured goods and need for overseas naval stations The Twentieth Century Progressivism
U.S. applied to Foreign Policy takes control over Caribbean and access to Pacific Rim U.S. develops "moral tone" for world leadership Wilsonian Principles of 14 points (League of Nations) Rejects unilateral action
A by Isolationists, 1919-1939 critical factor in the cause of WWII was refusal by U.S. to take active role in international affairs WWII (1939-1945) Undermines Isolationist position; Germany and Japan could "defeat" U.S. economic interests abroad Constructs U.S.-led multi-national agencies U.N., World Bank, IMF Modern Foreign Policy Cold War (1945-1992)(5 Dem, 5 Rep Pres.) U.S. constructs bi-partisan policy to battle U.S.S.R., wins through multinational containment and deterrence Avoid escalation, "proportionality" if conflict erupts Post-Cold Single War (1992-present) superpower Oddly situated in multi-national world which the U.S. created from 1945-1991 "Global War on Terror" (1973-present) 1973 Yom Kippur/Ramadan War; Israel seen as vulnerable to unified Arab attack, turn to fundamentalist Islam to unify 1979 Iranian Revolution 1981 Anwar Sadat Assassination by Islamic Jihad, members of plot form Al Qaeda First Post-Cold War Policy: Colin "Powell Doctrine" Based on experiences in Vietnam, Lebanon (1983), and Gulf War I 1991 Chair JCS, intended to limit U.S. involvement in world affairs (neutralize criticism of U.S. as super power) War only if: Clear risk to U.S. security All diplomatic options are exhausted (U.N. support assumed) When force used, it must be overwhelming (no gradual build-up or "proportionality" like Vietnam and Cold War) U.S. public must be informed before the conflict and in strong support of action A clear exit strategy for military personnel must be established before they are sent in Following 9/11/01, GWB defined chief U.S threats coming from: First Post-9/11 Policy: George W. "Bush Doctrine" Terrorist organizations with a global reach (Al Qaeda) Weak states that harbor global-reach terrorists (Afghanistan) Rogue States seeking WMDs that they or terrorists can use (Iraq, Korea, Iran) Critical assumption (agree or disagree): Will Cold War-style containment work against these threats? Multinational U.N. (which the U.S. built) says "yes" Bush Administration says "no" Argues for rapid, unilateral action Bush at West Point, 2001: "If we wait for threats to materialize, we will have waited too long." Not afraid of angering multi-national agencies (as was intent of Powell Doctrine and Sec'y State Powell speech to U.N. in 2003) Termed "Preventative War" by Critics (like Japan at Pearl Harbor) Termed "Preemptive War" by Supporters (stopping Hitler in 1939) Questions for HIST-1302 Where and why did the U.S. expand overseas? Is this imperialism? How did progressivism provide a logic for U.S. expansion? What about Progressive racism and nativism? How does the U.S. react when progressive European nations collapsed into a pointless and destructive "civil war" (First World War)? U.S. Foreign Policy to 1920 "Tragedy of American Diplomacy" Why? Why should the U.S. expand? Continuation of past practice (Manifest Destiny) Civil War Legislation Over-Production and Export income ($1B by 1890; remember that Capitalism is radical) Growing Threats Psychological Factors Social Darwinism ("A Place in the Sun") Frontier National Honor Each on their own do not justify expansion ... but one policy does Alfred Thayer Mahan Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890) A concrete policy (naval construction) to wrap around these psychological fears The "Great White Fleet" Where to Expand? Pacific Latin Rim: China, Japan, India America and Caribbean ("The American Lake"): Cuba Zone: Nicaragua, Panama/Columbia Canal Hawaii 1854 Pacific Rim Annexation plans proposed 1875 "Special status" granted to sugar exporters 1887 Pearl Harbor naval treaty signed 1891 Queen Liliuokalani Support native democratic government? Fight white plantation owners? 1898 Hawaii annexed as US Terr. U.S. begins to take an active interest in world economic affairs U.S. government begins to take a direct role in domestic politics of another country U.S. proves willing to act U.S. public does not seriously examine the consequences of these actions U.S. "Hawaiian Model" no better than Great Britain in 1776 "Tragedy of American Diplomacy" U.S. demonstrates inability to accept non-Anglo people and nations as equals Statehood (& Const. equality) for Hawaiian natives!? Caribbean and Latin America Monroe Doctrine (1823) revived (and first enforced) after the Civil War European powers more active in the Americas after 1865 Unstable Latin American Republics create sense of impending disorder Chile Venezuela Mexico Cuba (under Juarez and before Porfirio Diaz) Cuban Independence U.S. supports rebels like Jose Marti for its own ends Marti wisely targets U.S. property to maximize effects Spain "out of control" Re-concentration Camps Atrocities William Randolph Hearst Joseph Pulitzer Spanish misrule "Yellow Press" Enrique De Lome Letter USS Maine sent to Cuba to project force "Remember the Maine. To Hell with Spain" "Yellow Journalism" "A Splendid Little War" U.S. Responds with an attack on the Philippines! 11,000 U.S. troops occupy the islands Aided by Filipino rebels Emilio Aquinaldo Cuba Naval Campaign a complete mismatch: Spain loses around 2K men U.S. Navy loses 1 in battle; 15 total Why a "Splendid Little War"?
- A great opportunity to "prove" America's Progressive "Manliness" T.R. and "Rough Riders" - White Man's Burden - Take San Juan Hill overlooking Santiago Black troops critical in taking Kettle Hill (see TR's group in background) Impressive Expansion (by 1900) Is this Imperialism? No Teller Amendment Cuban independence guaranteed by U.S.
Health benefits conferred by U.S. occupation Occupation intended to "reconstruct" Cuba as independent nation Yes Platt Amendment (1901) Cuba does not have sovereignty U.S. troops deployed in Cuba in 1906, 1912, & 1917 as part of "Gunboat Diplomacy" "Gunboat Diplomacy" Roosevelt: "Speak softly but carry a big stick" Tainted by Racism and Cultural Bias
Take up the White Man's burden Have done with childish days The lightly proffered laurel, The easy, ungrudged praise. Come now, to search your manhood, Through all the thankless years Cold, edged with dear-bought wisdom, The judgement of your peers. Rudyard Kipling, 1898 The Panama Canal An old issue: how to best connect a two-ocean country like the U.S. 1898 War with Spain revives national debate (U.S.S. Oregon) Nicaragua (already developed by US interests) Columbia (which owned Panama) By 1888, French Canal project falters 1901, US and UK agree to USconstructed canal 1902, US and France agree to sell Panama equipment One big problem: No one asked the people living in Central America The Colon Revolt (1903) TR approaches Columbia to permanently lease the canal zone. Rejected. Columbians are "a corrupt pithecoid community" and "inefficient bandits" to Roosevelt French investor Phillippe Bunau-Varilla convinces wealthy Colon residents to declare independence U.S. parks 9 modern warships off both coasts "Panama" born in 1903 U.S. Sec'y State John Hay signs treaty with Bunau-Varilla (French man who never once sets foot in Panama!) making it all "legal" (1903) TR proclaims "Roosevelt Corollary" to Monroe Doctrine (1903) Philippine occupation cost 250,000 Filipino lives; placed 70,000 U.S. soldiers in harms way (3.2k Americans killed, 2.8k wounded) Gunboat Diplomacy sets US against the spread of democracy in favor of profits Platt Amendment (1901) in Cuba Roosevelt Corollary (1903) in Latin America Open Door Policy (1899-1900) in China Hay-Banau-Varilla Treaty (1903) in Panama Policy Not termed "non-colonial imperial expansion"
"evil" but certainly "tragic" "Tragedy" of American Foreign Policy Conclusions to 1914
1. Panama Canal most lasting symbol of U.S. policy Impressive show of power Driven by economic necessity Leaves lasting scars between U.S. and local citizens 2. Is this Imperialism? Self-rule granted in Phil., Cuba, Guam, PR, Hawaii: NO Is this economic coercion? Clearly YES 3. "Tragic" diplomacy? U.S. public believes it is exporting democracy! But US creating "banana republics," dictators, and seeds of revolution (1950-present) 4. U.S. public largely isolated from these decisions People think they are in isolationist country, but their economy was (and is) deeply reliant on world markets 5. "Progressive" Racial Ideology was key to making exploitation easier to tolerate TR: Central Americans were our "little brown cousins" TR: "All the great masterful races have been fighting races... No triumph of peace is quite so great as the triumph of war" Kipling: Empire was "White Man's Burden" The Great War
Edvard Munch The Scream (1893) Culmination of Factors Alliance System (1815- 1914) International Brinksmanship Elaborate Military planning Von Schlieffen Plan Personal Rivalries Lessons of the U.S. Civil War ignored "Short war" possible "Total war" avoidable Militarism Technologies "Use it or lose it" Mobility Instant decisions Hard to countermand June, 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated July, 1914 Austria-Hungary threatens Serbia Germany backs Austria Russia backs Serbia France backs Russia England refuses to proclaim intentions August 1, 1914 Germany invades Belgium en route to France Alliances commence full scale war England enters on the side of Belgium "The Guns of August" The "Progress" of the First World War
1. By 1914: Germany alienates Russia, finds lone ally in weak Austria-Hungary (Central Powers) 2. 1914: Von Schliefen Plan avoids French fortifications, Germany to stall Russian offensive long enough to destroy French defenders of Paris 3. 1915: Battles lines in West set (trench warfare), in East they remain fluid, deadly, but indecisive 4. 1917-8: The German "big push" nearly works, but trenches slow and then stop offensive Horrors of Total War Compare: U.S. Civil War 4+ years 625,000 fatalities WWI 5,500,000 fatalities First 30 months e.g., Battle of the Somme 60,000 dead first day! 1.2M dead in 4 months U.S. Response Wilson appeals for "true neutrality" "impartial in thought as well as in deed" Emerging American sympathies Investments Cultural Fear of German militarism Submarine warfare against "neutral" commerce Germany declares British waters a war zone Lusitania (May, 1915) "Preparedness" Wilson and U.S. in a corner Germans "must" stop U-boat attacks; but a failure to do so would be an act of war against US U.S. demands U-Boats surface to announce their attack! Critical: U.S. economy clearly linked to success of Allies "He kept us out of war" "Peace without victory" League of Nations 1916 Election All the while, Wilson has to build a credible army and navy U.S. Entry into WWI Europe collapsing as a result of the war Germany plans final offensive, 1918 German Strategy Delay U.S. deployment "Unrestricted Submarine Warfare" (Jan., 1917) Diffuse U.S. military power Zimmerman Telegram (March, 1917) Henry Cabot Lodge: "As soon as I saw it, I knew it would arouse the country more than any other event" April 6, 1917, U.S. Declares War The U.S. "Over There" From "War Letters," PBS Series American Experience, Book by Andrew Carroll "We were all subjected to several different kinds of [gas] today, with and without masks... It sure is horrible stuff, honey." Ed Lukert, 1st Lieutenant, wounded in Battle of Marne, June 18, 1918. Lukert survived to return home to his wife. He spent 36 years in the Army and was a regimental commander in World War II. The War "Over Here" Committee Vilifies on Public Information Germany as "Mad Brute" Plays off of racist/nativist fears of foreigners Rationale for direct U.S. Involvement Flows very well with progressive logic of a strong central government and direct relationship with U.S. (rather than local communities, states, etc.) "Patriotism" measured in how strongly one supports these efforts; not in how one practices or understands civic duty It is patriotic to argue that U.S. has no role in this European/Imperialist conflict? "Infantile patriotism:" Love country like a baby does its mother, not as adults love each other (critically) Some Social Changes Accelerated Women's Suffrage Prohibition African-Americans as soldiers and citizens But Strong Conservative Backlash Espionage Prison Act, 1917 even for "casual or impulsive disloyal utterances" 2000+ prosecuted; Mostly labor leaders and radicals 1912 Presidential candidate Eugene Debs runs for office from prison in 1918 Sedition Illegal Act, 1918 Protective League
justice acceptable in time of "crisis" (war in Europe) to criticize the Government or Army American Vigilante
7 African-American veterans lynched IN UNIFORM!! 1919 Red Scare
Arrested by Atty Gen'l A. Mitchell Palmer, 1919-1920
and Venzetti 6000+ Sacco 1920s Immigration Restrictions Peace Fourteen Points & Versailles No Secret Treaties
accidental wars No Free No Trade advantage for colonization Isolate the Soviet Union League of Nations In trade, Wilson agrees: German labeled as aggressor, guilty of causing the war! Reparations and humiliation Conclusions 1. Problem of "National SelfDetermination"
1. Alsace-Lorraine 2. Cordon Sanitaire 3. Yugoslavia 4. Arab States created by France/England - Turkey - Syria (FR) - Lebanon (FR) - Saudi Arabia - Palestine (UK) - Iraq (UK) - Kuwait Conclusions
2. WWI opened the potential for U.S. to emerge as world leader - Europe clearly battered (economically and psychologically) - Wilson sees opportunity for US-led "New World Order" 3. WWI ends Progressive Era and begins conservative backlash of 1920s - Patriotic fervor turns "social criticism" into "anti-American" thought or behavior 4. WWI provides greater acceptance for Nativism and Xenophobia - All the more reason to keep people out 5. WWI encourages U.S. to grow its own federal surveillance methods FBI (1908) OSS (1918) ==> CIA "Loyalty Oaths" for teachers, civil servants, professionals With Russian Revolution, early Cold War emerging ...
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- Spring '08