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Unformatted text preview: "Owing to past neglect, in the face of the plainest warnings, we have now entered upon a period of danger greater than has befallen Britain since the U-Boat campaign [during WWI] was crushed... The era of procrastination, of half-measures, of soothing and baffling expedients, of delays, is coming to a close. In its place we are entering a period of consequences..." Sir Winston Churchill, November 1936 World War II "The Good War" Single most important event in Modern U.S. history More long-lasting change than any 4-year period in U.S. history (including Civil War) Validates principles of U.S. liberalism at home (I'll argue that the domestic front was more important than the international one) What DO we stand for? War "validates" consensus agreement about meaning of modernity War of ideology (war against "evil") abroad Liberalism v. totalitarianism Questions for HIST-1302 What are the causes of WWII and what was the U.S. response to these early events? What were the respective roles of Britain, the Soviet Union, and the U.S. in winning the war? What changes in the U.S. as a result of WWII? WWI Settles Nothing The Gathering Storm Peace creates more problems than it solves Emerging powers all reject Liberalism Germany Italy Japan USSR Great Depression creates Nationalistic panic Save yourself at the expense of your neighbor Military expansion a good way to vent frustrations Seen as Economic solution Fascism, Militarism, and Dictatorship Benito Mussolini Fasces a symbol of unity Combine military, labor, central gov't, and big business Anti-Liberal Anti-Communist Powerfully "patriotic" (nationalistic) All personified in a national "Leader" (Il duce) 1922 Fascists March on Rome 1924 Dictatorship Italian Aggression Bullying tactics Play off of insecurities Test resolve of Liberals Ethiopia (1935) Spanish Civil War (1936) Seek out alliances with other bullies They see that democracies unwilling to prevent aggression
Pablo Picasso, Guernica (1939) 1917 Revolution Josef Stalin The Soviet Union Marxist-Leninist (Bolsheviks) coup Vladimir Lenin dies 1922 Consolidates power, purges military, collectivizes Soviet economy (up to 10 million die as a result of his policies) Absolute leader by 1929 Democracies "respond" U.S. sends minimal aid to "White Russians," fails completely Business press for "normalization" Fordizatsia Will Rogers, "We would recognize the Devil... if he would contract for some pitchforks." Imperial Japan Major Power Never recognized as one; race clearly has something to do with this Geographic limits to growth Military gains "veto" power over coalition governments Emperor does nothing to stop this Liberals forced from power in 1920s Coup in 1931 Japan Min. of War becomes acting Prime Minister Invades Manchuria, 1931 Northern China, 1937 Rise of Nazi Germany Germany clearly the most fearsome of the group Economic heavyweight Depression hits hard (like U.S.) Versailles Treaty War Guilt Reparations French occupation of Rhineland and Ruhr Valley Demilitarization "Stab in the Back" Tradition of Militarism (true of Japan as well) Adolf Hitler Austrian born Aimless youth, not rabid anti-Semite WWI gives him a purpose 2x Iron Cross Restoring Germany became his mission Various right wing groups SA (Brownshirts) Anti-Semitism deepens Not a "mad man" (an idiot, yes) Beer Hall Putsch (1923) Mein Kampf (1923) Spells it all out for all to read Germany needs "fuhrer" or leader Sees himself as the "drummer" Hitler's Rise to Power Hitler released from Prison by Weimar gov't Master Speaker Turns to ballot for victory 1933, Nazi's win plurality (34%) of seats in Parliament Demand right to name Chancellor Old conservatives agree to Hitler Able to control the "Austrian corporal" 1933 Reichstag burned Emergency measures declares By July, Nazi's only "official" party remaining Hitler moves aggressively By 1934, Hitler is in complete control: SS, Gestapo, People's Court Hitler's Appeal? The Triumph of the Will (1934)
Directed by Leni Riefenstahl Nazi Goals
1. Lebensraum 2. Rearmament 3. State directed economic growth (eg.Volkswagen) 4. Anschluss 5. Cultural Purity 6. Racial Purity For many Germans, this seemed like a low priority It wasn't The "Jewish Question" 1933, Jews barred from public employment 400k other mentally or morally "weak" Germans sterilized 1935, Nuremberg Laws Jews lost citizenship Must identify themselves Could not inter-marry Just like Jim Crow in U.S. 1938, Krystallnacht Begin relocation into concentration/work camps By 1939, 200k wealthiest Jews have left Germany (all property taken by the state) Germany and Militarism 1933-1937 German action mostly bluff 1933, Withdrew from League of Nations 1936, Militarizes Rhineland 1936, Sign Rome-Berlin Axis Aids Fascist General Franco in Spain Hitler: "The world belongs to the man with guts!" 1938-1939 Germany becomes a real threat Annexes Austria Seizes Sudeten in Czechoslovakia Then takes rest of Czech. Signs German-USSR NonAggression Pact! (1939) von Ribbentrop (GER) and Soviet dictator Stalin laugh it up as Molotov (USSR) signs the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact on August 23, 1939 . Indifference American Response U.S. refuses to take part in WWI for 2 years U.S. repudiates loans (no $ ties) U.S. limits industrial sales U.S. ends immigration (1921, 1924) "Viet Nam Syndrome" Why did 50,000 U.S. soldiers die? Hitler openly contemptuous of U.S. Economic isolation Laughs as U.S. struggles with Depression Consequences of Neutrality Roosevelt aware of European dangers Begins to rebuild navy Recognizes USSR in 1933 Continues to ease tensions in Latin America (Hoover's Good Neighbor Policy) But when FDR only suggests a "quarantine" of Japan, he is attacked in U.S. press as a "war mongerer" US unwilling to act England sees no help coming from the U.S. Turn to Appeasing Germany (why?) Exactly what not to do with Hitler Appeasement: Czechoslovakia Turning Point Hitler unwilling to stop expansion after Munich Italy invades Albania (April, 1939) Ger-USSR Non-Aggression Pact (August, 1939) Germany Demands E. Prussia (i.e., Poland) Ultimatum issued by England, France "Death watch" Sept. 1, 1939 Poland invaded Sept. 3, 1939 England declares war Sept, 1939 May, 1940 Would UK again appease? The "Phony War" U.S. doesn't wait institutes "Cash and Carry" arms policy No loans to Europe No U.S. ships to Europe FDR learns: Germany readies for total war France incapable of self-defense But England resolved Sign reads: "R.I.P. Here we three pressmen died waiting" Beginning of US-UK "special relationship" Blitzkrieg Avoid trench warfare of WWI Favors maneuver over attrition as best military tactic Mechanized infantry, groundattack air support, and mobile artillery Heavy artillery through dense Ardennes Forest Surround French defenses (Maginot Line) At Dunkirk (May, 1940) One and only time that Hitler's military advice works 338,000 men escape to England But UK loses 90,000 rifles, 120,000 vehicles US officially unwilling even to resupply England!! By June, 1940 France, Norway, Denmark, Belgium now all out of war U.S. fearful the UK will strike a deal (a "separate peace" rather than "unconditional surrender") Churchill clear & inspirational: June 4, 1940: "We shall go on to the end, we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, ... we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, ... we shall never surrender... until in God's good time, the New World, with all its power and might, steps forth to the rescue and the liberation of the world." Winston Churchill (PM) Horrific Cost: Battle of Britain June, 1940 June, 1941 Battle of Britain Changes the U.S. British "pluck" braces U.S. resolve 40,000+ killed A "9/11" every week for over a year Nazi attacks on civilians seals U.S. moral indignation V-1 rockets This is not like WWI FDR shifts rhetoric U.S. now the "arsenal of democracy" But how to supply England while remaining "Neutral"? Lend Lease and U.S. Neutrality England literally bankrupted by "cash and carry" WWII policy Lend Lease proposed Fireside Chat (12/29/40) "garden hose" $7B appropriated Four Freedoms (all Wilsonian) ...of Speech ...of Religion ...from Fear ...from Want Atlantic Charter U.S. Munitions orders 1940 = $2.2B 1941 = $13.7B + $7B (Lend Lease) [New Deal "Big Bill" was $11 B over eight years!] "Freedom from Want" Greatest issue of contention: China Both see China as part of their future U.S. has no "strategic interests," only economic Other points U.S. and Japan U.S. supplied Japan with nearly all oil & scrap iron U.S. Racism 1937 Manchuria invasion, U.S. could... Bolster China (as it did with England) or Sanction Japan (as it did not with Germany) FDR chooses sanctions much more provocative Japanese officials feel "like a fish in a pond from which water was gradually being drained away" Japan has only 18 month reserve of oil, even less iron Decisive action "required" September, 1941: Japan fashions a "Southern Operation" Take Dutch East Indies Isolate Singapore and Philippines Cripple U.S. Pacific fleet Force U.S. to negotiate from position of weakness They knew the could not defeat U.S. in conventional war Policy Decisions "What if" U.S. had negotiated FDR didn't want Pacific war U.S. actions in WWII had no effect on Chinese developments Pacific war drains European efforts Probably impossible to change conflict Japanese planning underway U.S. and FDR completely absorbed by European theater Pearl Harbor Japanese well prepared Strategic coordination Fighters and bombers Pearl the perfect opportunity very "target rich" Diplomacy Clear that Japanese mounting training operations U.S. Cordell Hull delivers memo to Japanese (11/41) Offers diplomatic solution? No, an ultimatum by US to Japan Shinto warrior tradition Never attack an enemy without warning Diplomats told to break off contact December 7, before 1:00PM Attack Truly a textbook operation on how to destroy an opponent's key military installation Two waves 6:00AM, 183 bombers, fighters, and torpedo planes 7:00AM, 167 more Adm. Isoroku Yamamoto 7:53AM Radio silence broken with "Tora" code ("Tiger" meaning surprise was achieved) Damage was literally unprecedented in U.S. military history 180 Airplanes destroyed 120 Airplanes damaged All 8 Battleships sunk or damaged 10 Major Support Ships sunk or damaged 1,103 killed on U.S.S. Arizona alone However... Not a single US aircraft carrier was at port Fueling and repair stations untouched U.S. public galvanized to respond isolationism gone with the first shots fired in Hawaii A day of "infamy" U.S. Allies given hope: Churchill: "So we had won after all! Hitler's fate was sealed. Mussolini's fate was sealed. As for the Japanese, they would be ground to dust.... Being saturated and satiated with emotion and sensation, I went to bed and slept the sleep of the saved and thankful." Conspiracy? Doubtful U.S. on full military alert since 11/27/41 (Hull Memo) FDR's priority before, during, and even after Pearl Harbor was Europe Diplomacy would have worked against Japan Only Hitler's stupidity at declaring war on U.S. allowed FDR to spend resources in Europe Key reason for shock leading to conspiracy: Historian Paul M. Kennedy: How could a non-white nation lay such a beatin' on the U.S.? "The American `failure' at Pearl Harbor, if such there was... was systematic, pervasive, and cumulative, embedded in a tangle of only partially thought-out strategic assumptions and priorities and colored by smug attitudes of racial superiority that had now been violently challenged." End of U.S. Isolationism U.S. committed "to maintain the security of the peace that will follow." (a commitment we are still honoring today). "Wilsonian Ideals" of WWI End of Isolationism, the U.S., and its International Agenda ("Good War")
Free trade (needs universally convertible currency) Open diplomacy Expand democratic liberalism During WWII (much like Republican activism during the U.S. Civil War) Atlantic Charter (colonial self-determination) and The Four Freedoms (1941) Bretton Woods (New Hampshire) Agreement (1944) IMF, World Bank, GATT (1946); U.S. creates and then pays for globalization Allied Conferences (from Casablanca, 1942, to Potsdam, 1945) with active U.S. diplomatic involvement United Nations (1945) Pacific War, Stage I Japanese run wild Japanese Navy not scratched 11 battleships 6 large carrier groups 4 small carrier groups Malaya, Hong Kong, Guam, Burma, Singapore, Philippines Tactics Night fighting "Decisive battle" Samurai code of honor No surrender U.S. Regains Control Doolittle Raid (April, 1942) Battle of Coral Sea (May, 1942) Japanese expansion halted Pacific War, Stage II MAGIC cipher (Japanese Naval Code JN-25) Cmdr. Joseph Rochefort Battle of Midway (June, 1942) Dauntless dive-bombers: Wade McCluskey, Maxwell Leslie Japanese lose 3 aircraft carriers War turned Japanese turn to defensive Guadalcanal Island Hopping campaign proves successful Very costly in men Europe, Phase I U.S. entry doesn't hurt Allied fighting Second Battle of the Atlantic Germans hunt using submarine "wolf packs" Allies respond with larger convoys, supported by "corvettes" used to hunt submarines U.S. fails to enforce coastal blackouts; ships easily spotted at night and sunk Competing Allied Strategies American strategy British strategy USSR strategy Survivability Nothing too risky Second Front at all costs Why does USSR want such an aggressive and risky policy toward the Nazis? (Hey, when did the commies join the war?) Massive assault against strength of enemy (Grant in Civil War) Overpower with war-making capabilities Operation Barbarosa (June, 1941) Hitler invades USSR Arguments over Balkans and Greece Hitler has no respect for Slavs 3 million troops Russia devastated 2 million troops captured or killed (6 months!) 2 million civilian casualties American response Operation Torch Ineffective, seem willing to allow horrific losses in USSR Europe, Phase II Russia Survives Stalingrad (1942) halts Nazi advance Policy decisions (Casablanca conference) Unconditional surrender U.S. to provide the "machinery of war" until Second Front established Simple formula for victory Time (England and USSR survive) Men (USSR lost 3M already) Materials (U.S.) "The Arsenal of Democracy" FDR "Fireside Chat" Amazing gauge of U.S. capacity 5,777 merchant ships 1,556 naval ships 300,000 aircraft 634,569 jeeps 88,410 tanks (Germany: 44,857) 6.5M rifles; 40B bullets In addition (!!!) to this:
Manhattan Project (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Gen. Leslie Groves) $2B 150,000 highly technical specialists reserved for what was, in essence, pure science!! Tested 7/16/45 ("Trinity test"); Used 8/6 and 8/9/45 How? Guaranteed Profits Full amortization of investments Capping salaries (businesses plowed profits back into their plants) A True Second Front Critical shifts USSR on the offensive, taking control of E. Europe America emerges as senior partner in US-UK alliance American war production coming on line "Operation Overlord" 20 U.S. divisions (10-20k each); 14 British; 5 Other Counter-Intelligence Germany spreads defenses Hesitant to commit once engaged D-Day June 6, 1944 - Three Million Allied Troops Eventually Cross the English channel! - U.S., U.K., Canada - Free French, Poles - Omaha (U.S.) and Juno (Can.) Beaches the Deadliest for Allies - Omaha Beach: - 7000 yds wide - 150 ft bluffs - well defended Saving Private Ryan (1998)
Directed by Steven Spielberg Effects of WWII at Home (1) End of Isolationsism
WWII proves U.S. can not remain unconnected to the problems of the world Casablanca (1942) (2) Mass internal migration toward jobs Movement (Sunbelt) 15 million in the military 15 million civilians move to defense jobs 20% of entire population moves (1941-1945) U.S. Gov't spends $40B in capital investments (factories, highways, power stations) in the West alone 10% of all fed. money (1941-45) spent in California 3. Massive Government Spending ends the Depression J. M. Keynes was right (for 1941, at least) that federal spending placed money directly in the hands of businesses and consumers From 1941-1945 U.S. spends 2x what was spent from 1789-1941 4. Civil Rights Reverses Japanese Americans Issei Japanese born, a few naturalized Nissei U.S. born therefore U.S. citizens Executive Order 9066 Korematsu-v-U.S. (1944) 4. Civil Rights Reverses: Mexican-Americans: Braceros Program Agricultural Day-Laborers Essential economic labor Mexico demands certain promises by U.S. over treatment of workers Braceros Program 200,000 workers enter legally Same number illegally Terrible conditions for most Wages low Housing inadequate Racism No medical or educational services
Braceros Housing, Mathis, Texas, 1945 4. Civil Rights Reverses: Mexican Americans Zoot-Suit Riots, 1943 Whites thought clothing style meant they were all pachucos (street gang members) 5. Civil Rights Advancements Doris "Dorie" Miller, Waco TX, Navy Cross for "extraordinary courage under fire," KIA 11/1945 Gunnar Myrdal, The American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy Published during the war (today he would be attacked for "criticizing" the U.S.!) All Americans share certain values political, cultural, social Key to problem was whites' inability to change/accept this is true for people of color A. Philip Randolph proposes March on Washington Fair Employment Practices Commission "Double-V" Campaign FDR responds with Executive Order 8802 (June, 1941) C.O.R.E. (1942) Membership open to anyone who believes that "all men [sic] are created equal" The modern civil rights movement has begun (due to WWII) (MLK, Jr. is only 12 years old) 5. Civil Rights Advances: Women But with Limits Real shift 1940: 10% of industrial workforce female 1945 up to 30% in some industries Over 19M worked, 3.5 in industry But more typically placed in "acceptable" women's work Only 350,000 in defense jobs Majority in low-service jobs, clerical, typists Women of color overwhelmingly in low pay sectors janitorial, laundry 75% working age women remained at home Motherhood and domesticity regains strength, grows during later years of war 1920's "New Woman" gone Growing concern over "whacky khaki" girls Promiscuous, night life, alcohol, etc. Gender-based stereotypes return or are reinforced 5. Civil Rights Advances (Delayed) Mexican-Americans Dr. Hector P. Garcia Founds American GI Forum, 1948 Felix Longoria Affair, Three Rivers, TX, 1949 Longoria killed in Philippines Remains returned One and only funeral parlor refused to allow Longoria's WAKE 500,000 Mexican-American veterans of WWII Garcia spurred when CC Naval Air Station hospital refuses to accept Mex-Am vets Garcia presses issue to local, state, and national officials Headline news in New York Times, no mention locally Garcia then focuses on Bilingual primary education Desegregation Equal job and housing opportunities AGIF and LULAC (both formed in South Texas!) form the core of the modern civil rights movement for Mexican-Americans Garcia awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1984, by Pres. Ronald Reagan 6. New Deal Activism Dies 1942 ushers in Conservative Congress CCC, WPA, National Youth Admin., Rural Electrification all killed or left unfunded Roosevelt proposes "Second Bill of Rights" Full Employment FDR Assumes U.S. Economy at its Max. Proposal is DOA Irony One of the greatest New Deal-style programs does pass: The GI Bill Hoped to prevent fiasco of Bonus Army in 1932 Education College tuition assistance Medical Universal health care (gasp) Low Interest Home Loans Down payment assistance Domestic Changes Summarized World War II drastically alters: Americans' view of their place in the world (as the leader of liberal democracies and industrial capitalism) Americans' view of their economy (healthy and growing, a model for the post-war world, growth aided by NATIONAL GOVERNMENTAL POLICIES) Americans' view of their civic ideology (democracy means EQUAL access to all, not just one master race); ASSUME that others share in this goal Americans' view of their political ideology (progressivism validated by policies of the war; Keynesian economics, moderate benefit plans [G.I. Bill]) All aided by a "Good War" where the enemies (and what they stood for) are very clear 1944 Election Both Parties Move to the Center FDR drops liberal Henry Wallace for conservative Harry S Truman Rep. run John Dewey Clear to all: FDR was dying Election night, Truman dazed Friend said "He knew he was going to be President... and it just scared the very devil out of him" FDR plans funeral and will before giving 4th Inaugural Address European War's End Yalta Conference (Feb, 1945) Birth of the Cold War UN established Poland given away Post-War Germany deferred USSR promises to aid if they get Kurile Islands FDR Unable or unwilling to prepare public for post-war reality with Soviet Union U.S. still in weak position Japan poses real threat FDR dies (April 12) Mussolini killed (April 28) Hitler suicide (April 30) V-E Day (May 8, 1945) April-May, 1945 Victory of Liberalism over Aggressive and Threatening Counter-Ideologies The "Good War" Pacific War's End Intense Brutality Saipan Use of Navajo "Windtalkers" Currently the "perfect petri dish for capitalism" (Delay, RTX); Abramoff scandals Only 1k of 22k Japanese troops survive U.S. lose nearly 7k 125k Japanese civilians killed U.S. lose over 12k Iwo Jima Okinawa High American Casualties Air War Brutal, Relentless, Targeting of Civilians -- all part of a Total ("Good"?) War American Air Power Bombing critical, but not decisive Massive assaults Allied "Terror Bombing" U.S. Air command: Simple "baby killing schemes [that would]... be a blot on the history of Air forces and of the U.S." Berlin: 25,000 civilians killed Dresden: 35,000 civilians killed Air War and Japan "Island Hopping" Campaign intended to secure airstrips Closer islands, like Iwo Jima, needed for short range fighters to support B-29 bombers Savage fighting Okinawa saw 50k U.S. casualties, 140k Japanese dead, 42k civilian What would it take to secure mainland? Japanese indicate they would execute 100k POWs when assault began Fire-bombing wooden cities of Japan Estimates range from 80-100k killed in Tokyo in one attack! Essential to understand costs without the use of atomic device U.S. bombing strategist Robert S. MacNamara (future Sec'y of Defense during Viet Nam War) Gen. Paul Tibbets: "...everything in the cockpit turned blue..." The Atomic Device Hiroshima, Aug. 6, 1945 Nagasaki, Aug. 9, 1945 V-J Day (Some) Conclusions to WWII
1. (1) The Pacific Rim is Completely Changed Japanese claim war aims: "Asia for Asians" Philippines (1946) India (1947) Sri Lanka/Ceylon (1949) China (1949) Indochina/Viet Nam (1954-1975) Korea FDR: "It almost seems that the Japs were a necessary evil in order to break down the old colonial system" (2) Europe is Completely Changed "Germany" gone England exhausted France humiliated USSR now the critical player Eastern Europe controlled and occupied U.S. now willing to take an active and on-going role in European affairs What about European colonies? 3. America is radically changed: (Foreign Policy) Isolation Ends WWI U.S. refuses to cancel war debts WWII U.S. spends $17B rebuilding Europe WWI U.S. passes Smoot-Hawley, protectionism WWII U.S. creates WTO and GATT WWI U.S. refuses to use domestic economy to stabilize the world economy WWII U.S. creates IMF and World Bank "Globalization" of today the product of WWII U.S. Domestic Change (cont) Americans move to the suburbs of the "Sunbelt Cities" Follow Federal investments in Military and "Military Industrial Complex" New Cities don't have the political tradition of support services seen in North Suburban Americans no longer willing to invest in the cities through taxes Political alignment to the "U.S." rather than local communities Civil Rights Movement Legitimized Women, people of color, immigrant laborers 4. U.S. Becomes More Tolerant of Domestic Criticism Race Racial Policy Clearly not much different from Nazi's Modern Civil Rights movement justified by WWII Public becomes aware of the Holocaust U.S. does nothing throughout the war Anti-colonialism at high tide U.N. begins task almost immediately Cold War born out of desire by U.S. to lead 5. The World Become More Callous to Mass Suffering and Death From "War Letters," PBS Series American Experience, Book by Andrew Carroll S. Sgt. Horace Evers writes to his family from Hitler's residence, May 2, 1945 6. Is this the Last "Good War"? Yes: WWII defeated "unpleasant" and powerful enemies Nazis Militaristic Italy and Japan If WWII never happened, would we have such a positive view of war? (WWI, Korea, Viet Nam) Yes: WWII changes the nature of American society for the better (value judgement) Mostly, yes, because all subsequent world wars can not be good wars Nuclear exchange 100Ms of civilian deaths 7. Single Most Important Event of Twentieth Century? Ends Colonial Imperialism (Africa, Asia) Begins Cold War Propels Civil Rights to Critical Point Globalization Economy Multi-lateral Governance: UN, NATO Pre-WWII this was unthinkable U.S. accepts the financial and social costs of a world leadership role (seen 9/11/01) ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2012 for the course HIST 1302 taught by Professor Carter during the Spring '08 term at Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi.
- Spring '08