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Unformatted text preview: International Cold War
19451960 Yalta (1945) Harry S. Truman Atomic Diplomacy George Kennan Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan Terms for International Cold War
NATO National Security Act NSC68 Korean War "Universal Doctrine" From "War Letters," PBS Series American Experience, Book by Andrew Carroll The "Greatest Generation," which survived the Great Depression and won WWII, is now focused on coming home and enjoying the "good life." "Mind set" Victorious But also... Exhilarated by strength of U.S. internationally Respectful of power and authority Exhausted Emotionally drained "Only" 400k dead Average US salary 14x that of nonUS (1947) America: 1945 Best Years of Our Lives (1946) Winner of 7 Academy Awards Questions for HIST-1302 Where does the "Cold War" come from? What ideas make it an "ideological" war? Why is this different from previous (especially the Second World) wars? Ironic Adversaries Both Ideologically "Radical" Both World Leaders Why was the U.S. so active Internationally, following 1945? Lessons of WWI and WWII U.S. Isolation... Harms global trade and U.S. economy Supports colonialism, which harms U.S. economy Spawns aggressive competitors (Fascism) rather than willing Multinational institutions aid both U.S. economic and ideological goals: capitalism and liberalism New "revolutionary" state of USSR challenges U.S. historic role as exporter of revolutionary liberalism U.N., NATO World Bank, GATT, IMF collaborators Also motivated by bitterness
US Felt betrayed by USSR after 1945 Many believed that Yalta Agreement was in error FDR figures in all of these as very important Poland given away "Free Elections" never held Stalin a mass murderer The US/USSR During WWII FDR promises Russia a second front in 1942 and 1943 but can not deliver Invasion of Italy (1943), USUK take complete control of territory Combined, FDR gives Stalin a "free hand" in territories occupied by Soviets Precedent for Stalin in E. Europe (1944) Stalin paranoid of sellout Yalta less of a "sellout" than a culmination of policies already in place Agree to partition postwar Germany (Tehran, 1943) Agree to give Greece to UK, Rom./Bulg. To USSR, Yugo./Hung. "jointly controlled" (Oct, 1944) Yet FDR selling Wilsonian Ideals AT HOME: "I got along fine with Marshall Stalin [at Tehran]. I believe he is truly representative of the heart and soul of Russia; and I believe that we are going to get along very well with him and the Russian people." Harry S Truman In a sense, HST has to pay for the "relationship of convenience" that developed between US/USSR during WWII Hard choices Truman an outsider within FDR administration Reality faced by HST Cut deals with totalitarian state to avoid WWIII? Refuse to "appease" totalitarian state and risk millions of lives? Jan 6, 1946, HST: "I'm sick of babying the Soviets" US/USSR opposed on almost every issue Conflicting Goals of US-USSR
U.S. Economy Free Trade World Wide Collective Security U.N. Led by U.S. Reconstructed Liberal Democracy Increasingly important USSR Bloc trading Controlled by USSR Never another land invasion of USSR Divided and Weak Conservative Autocracy Increasingly nonexistent Security Germany/Japan Government Civil Rights Key Question: Who Starts the Cold War?
False question: Already underway during WWII; post war period VERY UNSTABLE USSR US Totalitarian state, aggressive towards occupied territories, no concern for civil liberties of "citizens" Activity in Eastern Europe shows their hand: use force to install puppet regimes Overestimate threat by Soviets; therefore overreact by being too aggressive too early Willing to protect and promote American spheres of influence Greatest destabilizing factor: Atomic weaponry and willingness to use them "Atomic Diplomacy" Sec'y State James Byrnes "We need to make Russia manageable in Europe. The only way to negotiate with the Russians is to hit them hard and then negotiate." Conservative Sec'y State Henry Stimson "If we fail to approach them now but merely continue to negotiate with them having this weapon ostentatiously on our hip, their suspicions and their distrust of our purposes and motives will increase... Unless the Soviets are voluntarily invited into the partnership upon a basis of cooperation and trust, we are going to maintain the AngloSaxon bloc over against the Soviets in the possession of this weapon. Such a condition will almost certainly stimulate feverish activity on the part of the Soviet toward the development of this bomb in what will in effect be a secret armament race of a rather desperate character. There is evidence to indicate that such activity may have already commenced." commenced." Atomic Diplomacy Rapid Series of Global Events (1945) European Powers losing control of colonies Stalin moves to consolidate control of E. Europe Financial constraints of England revealed (bankrupted before Lend Lease installed) FDR advocates independent French IndoChina, refuses to aid French against Ho Chi Minh French appeal to Truman as a matter of honor; VN described as a matter of European security! Poland, Romania, Turkey, Greece Refuses to set timetables for withdrawal of troops Greece (influx of communists guerilla forces) Egypt and Suez, arrival of Israel and First Arab Israeli War (influx of Arab nationalists) India (Influx of Indians tired of being colonized by the Brits) U.S. LOOKING to understand the new diplomatic world in which it resided (and now reigned) George Kennan's "Long Telegram" (1946) Truman pledges US to: "In summary, we have here a political force committed fanatically to the belief that with the US there can be no permanent [peace], that it is desirable and necessary that the internal harmony of our society be disrupted, our traditional way of life destroyed, the international authority of our state broken, if Soviet power is to be secured." Communism a "malignant parasite which feeds only on diseased tissue" U.S. must pursue "patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies." Writes article (1947) for Foreign Affairs Support Reconstruction of Europe Establish collective defenses (NSA, NATO) Support USled UN Aid poor/developing nations in wars of national liberation Development of "Containment" Policy Development of the Containment Policy 1. Flexing American Economic Muscle to help rebuild ALL OF EUROPE Truman Doctrine ($400m, 1947) Marshall Plan (1948) $13B ($225B in today's dollars) IMF UN Relief World Bank GATT Expand Capitalism 2. Policy of "National Security" 2a. Joint Defense Pacts Rio Pact (1947) NATO (1949) Development of the Containment Policy 2b. Solidify "National Security" National Security Act (1947) CIA NSC JCS 2005 annual budget (est) > $30B!! [Margaret Graham, a 27year veteran of the CIA and now the deputy director of national intelligence for collection, said the annual "intelligence budget" was over $44 billion; 11/05] Not subject to Congressional oversight Takes court order (in 2005) to release CIA budget figures from 1963! IranContra Pentagon to speak with one voice These occur so quickly that there is little time for US people to absorb implications USSR Reacts to US Expansion Soviets shocked by rejection in US of isolationism! Czechoslovakia taken (1948) Access to Berlin closed (19481949) Germany permanently divided (1949) Warsaw Pact formed (1949) Rapid Pace of Events (1946-1950) The BIGGEST SHOCKS: COMECON central economic planning (1949) China "falls" to the Communists (194950) Soviet Union detonates nuclear device (1950)
Who "lost" China, becomes political tool in US domestic politics Military Alliance by 1955 Written by Paul Nitze, Robert Lovett NSC-68 (1950) Worstcase scenario, soon taken as the likely Supersecret document now available on the internet scenario (again, US errs in overestimating threat from USSR) Assumes: Global ideological war with USSR Only safeguard is federal support of military industrial economy Must oppose all forms of Soviet Expansion Internal ideological enemies need to be identified and removed Foreign Policy not always a "zero sum game" (they win/we lose) over communism/capitalism Problems with NSC-68 Some battles over cultural issues (like national independence; it is important to average Indians, Vietnamese, Israelis, etc. that THEY control their own countries; regardless of ideologies) Soviets unwilling to start WWIII for 3rd world "allies" Politburo members interested in personal power and survival, not some James Bond concept of global hegemony CIA overestimate Soviet military capabilities by a factor of 10x Assumes USSR more powerful and better organized than it is U.S policy now placed in permanent reactionary mode very dangerous and unstable! Even event forced through this "universal doctrine" How does event X fit into the Cold War (sometimes/often the answer is: "It doesn't!") While America does have ideological enemies, our laws and political culture are based on protecting civil liberties, not reducing them Democracy is a very hard to do, in practice; makes those interested in protecting AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES appear "weak" on National Security Hotspot #1: Korea (1950-1953) People's Republic of China (1949) June 25, 1950 Probably at the height of US anxieties over China and Soviet Abomb Recognized by all but U.S. Truman hemmed in by hardliners who later claimed he "lost China" (begin to see the problems of universal policy) North Korea (Kim IlSung) strikes, drives U.S. troops to coast (MacArthur warned dozens of times, no preparation) "Green light" from Stalin and Mao, but neither is in control U.S. gets U.N. approval for response Stalin: "If you should get kicked in the teeth, I shall not lift a finger. You have to ask Mao for all the help." Power play between Communists Who controlled N. Korea: China or USSR? Soviets foolishly boycott Security Council over seating of Nationalist China (Taiwan) America's Forgotten War NKPA has 135k man army, modern Soviet (T34) tanks; ROK has 95k with light arms; No U.S. troops in country Truman Use UN to sanction US action Use US military to drive out the North Station 7th fleet off Taiwan U.S. Military trapped in 140mile "Pusan Perimeter" But Naval and Air superiority Inchon landing (Sept. 1950) U.S. losses: 300k Chinese "volunteers" cross Yalu R. 33k killed; 142k wounded Why? ROK cleared of NKPA in 2 weeks!! ROK approach Chinese border in 1 month No victory, no defeat: Cold War Divided and economically floundering after WWII Soviets Blockade Berlin, 19481949 Build wall, 1961 U.S.? Recognizes West Germany, 1949 Admits West Germany to NATO, 1958 But would the U.S. fight WWIII for Germany? Extend our "nuclear umbrella"? WHY? John F. Kennedy (1962) Hot Spot #2: Germany What Does Berlin/Korea Show of U.S. and the Cold War? Very ideological
Very ideological U.S. willing to go to (nuclear) war to fight this ideological battle As a result, unconditional The man who controls the largest nuclear arsenal in the world sees himself as "a Berliner"! Aggression was resisted in Korea (Containment, not appeasement like Munich, 1939) US introduced to modern Limited not Total War Nuclear weapons do not allow flexible/scalable response, still need modern armed forces Beginning of trend that sees "wars of liberation" as preferred form of Cold War aggression Military and the Cold War What is "better:" Viet Nam War or nuclear exchange between USUSSR? Can these options lead to a "good war"? Cold War containment was a 180 degree departure for U.S. foreign policy
Reverses 175 years of U.S. policy trends IRONY (yet true): American power and legitimacy around the globe rests on willingness to limit our power Conclusions to International Cold War "Third World" becomes the contested terrain for International politics very different from WWII
E.g., Could one effectively bomb nondeveloped countries? Make allies through invasion as in WWII? UN, World Bank, GATT, IMF, Marshall Plan, NATO, etc... Unilateral, "go it alone" approach part of a new (neo) conservative ideology which starts in mid1970s Conclusion to the Cold War Cold War puts hidden strains on the World Economy Cold War now an important DOMESTIC political issue Emerging nations forced to chose between the USSR and the US Imagine if US was put into similar situation during the Gilded Age Parties use foreign affairs to strike partisan differences fears first expressed by Geo. Washington return While little actual difference in policy, Dem/Rep use bloated rhetoric against their political foes THIS is what gives McCarthyism its real power; heated rhetoric wins elections Need to be "tough" like WWII generation (who did all they could to avoid war) Don't allow commies to gain at our expense (Korea, China, Cuba, Berlin, Vietnam, Nicaragua, El Salvador, etc.) Charge opponent with being soft on communism (today its being a wimp in the global war on terror) Conclusions (cont.) "Universal Doctrine" of Containment established without a lot of debate But a "Universal Doctrine" is impossible to fight All opponents to U.S. policy must be either communists or comm. sympathizers Communism is bent on destroying U.S. U.S. must fight all communists everywhere! There is always the potential for someone, somewhere to be plotting against you Paranoia not a good basis for diplomacy Cold War (foreign policy) directs U.S. domestic policy, usually the reverse; first time since 1789 Unforeseen consequences to U.S. public Post-Script In the Cold War, ideology was critical: "The `new' Cold War history will take ideas seriously: here the way that the conflict ended is bound to reshape our view of how it began and evolved. For the events of 1989-91 make sense only in terms of ideas. There was no military defeat or economic crash; but there was a collapse of legitimacy. The people of one Cold War empire suddenly realized that its emperors had no clothes on. As in the classic tale, though, that insight resulted from a shift in how people thought, not from any change in what they saw." John Lewis Gaddis, We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History (1997), 283. ...
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