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290 The Sixties - Come gather'round people Wherever you...

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Unformatted text preview: Come gather 'round people Wherever you roam And admit that the waters Around you have grown And accept it that soon You'll be drenched to the bone. If your time to you Is worth savin' Then you better start swimmin' Or you'll sink like a stone For the times they are a changin'. For the times they are a changin'. Come senators, congressmen Please heed the call Don't stand in the doorway Don't block up the hall For he that gets hurt Will be he who has stalled There's a battle outside ragin'. It'll soon shake your windows And rattle your walls Come writers and critics For the times they are a Who prophesize with your pen changin'. And keep your eyes wide Come mothers and fathers The chance won't come again Throughout the land And don't speak too soon And don't criticize For the wheel's still in spin What you can't understand And there's no tellin' who that Your sons and your it's namin'. daughters For the loser now will be later to Are beyond your command win Your old road is Rapidly agin'. Please get out of the new one If you can't lend your hand For the times they are a changin'. The line it is drawn The curse it is cast The slow one now Will later be fast As the present now Will later be past The order is rapidly fadin'. And the first one now Will later be last For the times they are a changin'. Bob Dylan, The Times They are A Changin', (1963) JFK "New Frontier" Bay of Pigs (1961) Missile Crisis (1962) Assassination (1963) Warren Commission (1964) LBJ "Great Society" The Other America (1962) "War on Poverty" Economic Opportunity Act (1964) Cesar Chavez AIM Stonewall Riots (1969) "The Sixties" NOW (1966) Apollo 11; August, 1969 JFK in Dallas, November, 1963 Political A Decade of Impressions... Cultural Social Youth Music Idealism Liberalism (use the power of the federal government to improve the lives of those who can not help themselves) Civil Rights Interest Groups Empowerment ...but also a decade of harsh realities Viet Nam Racial Violence Assassinations Drugs and Consumer Excess Pollution Cold War Threat of Nuclear Annihilation ONE THING VERY CLEAR: NOT AN ERA OF SOCIAL OR POLITICAL CONSENSUS Family critical to understand JFK John Fitzgerald Kennedy Rose Fitzgerald (Kennedy) daughter of powerful Boston political family Joe Kennedy 8 Children (4 boys, 4 girls) Reckless competition? Millions as Wall St. stock manipulator, bootlegging, Hollywood, links to organized crime Sells out in early 1929, uses money to create political influence All driven to be the BEST, all compete with each other, very close Four eldest (Joe, John, Kathleen, Bobby) meet violent deaths by 1968 Distinguishes self in WWII Poor health: bad back, physical exhaustion, diagnosed with Addison's Disease in 1950s In early 1950s, he is in constant pain, older siblings both dead, why not live it up? Jack (John) always second to Joe, Jr. Poor Health & Surgery keeps Sen. Kennedy out of limelight during McCarthyism JFK Emerges as National Candidate Serious, intelligent, witty, charismatic Still reckless by 1958 1956 writes Profiles in Courage, wins Pulitzer with help from father Talk circuit shows handsome, intelligent, very likeable young man Serious candidate for '56 VP (if he had won VP and lost in national election, JFK's Catholicism would have been blamed) JFK's Political Rise 1960 wins close nomination over LBJ, close election over Nixon Friends of the "Rat Pack" (Sinatra, Peter Lawford, etc.) Constant womanizing; FBI warns him in Spring, 1962, that his current mistress was also sleeping with Sam Gianconna (Chicago mafia boss) All kept from public by willing press (would they have done the same for Nixon? Certainly not today) Era of High Idealism Even the term highlights the emotional aspects of American history Generational change JFK first president born in 20th c. Take up the burdens of the Cold War (war of ideals) Take on the hardest problems that America faced: Economic opportunity Race/Gender U.S. International leadership (military burden) "New Frontier" But Kennedy faced with huge problems: Politically LBJ an uncertain ally Close Election: no mandate Cold War (Berlin , Cuba, Indochina, Middle East, S. America, etc.) Civil Rights Southern whites flee Democratic Party and pursuit of Civil Rights Public willing to go with a new face, but he better not be incompetent Powerful Rhetoric & Idealism PostWWII Americans must lead the world that was created by the WWII generation (a mission) Idealistic "Camelot" "Eggheads" Youth (JFK youngest elected Pres.; TR assumes office) Action Family Mostly outsiders from business and academic ranks E.g., Sec'y Defense Robert McNamara was CEO of Ford Motor Co. Min. wage D.C. slum clearance (urban renewal) Movement on Civil Rights by 1963 Space program Little Substance A very conservative, "Hard Line" Administration 1. Rapid Military BuildUp 2. Move against Cuba U.S. faced "missile gap" with Soviets Sec'y Defense Robert McNamara "Flexible Response" (Green Berets and Special Forces) JFK and the Cold War 3. Bring Latin America into the Cold War (Alliance for Progress, $20B) 4. Berlin most volatile Following Bay of Pigs and USSoviet Summit, Berlin Wall erected REAL THREAT OF NUCLEAR EXCHANGE and/or WWIII Bay of Pigs, April, 1961 Look foolish and incompetent (worst of both worlds in politics) Cuban Missile Crisis (October, 1962) Unexpected (but today predictable) crisis 19611962, U.S. deploys 5000+ ICBMs U.S. nuclear arsenal grows by 500% In 1962, U.S. detonates 100 megaton device in the atmosphere (seen at right) Rapid expansion of nuclear forces Moves missiles into Cuba USSR responds JFK plays and wins war of nerves with Soviet Premiere Krushchev Seen by USSR as similar to U.S. missiles in Turkey Convinced JFK would not respond 15 minute striking distance JFK's single greatest legacy was in how he dealt with this crisis. Suggested that he could be a very good President and world leader Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara on the Cuban Missile Crisis and the likelihood of a Global ThermoNuclear War in October, 1962 ["Mr. President" refers to Fidel Castro, 1992] "Operation Mongoose" CIA and Justice Department Use mafia and CIA in both Cuba and U.S. RFK "was the driving force behind the clandestine effort to overthrow Castro... he seemed like a wild man who was outCIAing the CIA." Sen. Harris Wofford CIA denies it all to Warren Commission (evidence released with Church Commission Report, 1974) U.S. agrees not to invade Cuba, but didn't say anything about Castro Knowing what is coming, actions in Cuba prove important Dallas, TX, to promote new "get tough" approach to Communism (i.e., Viet Nam) 3 shots (~7 seconds) 1st hits tree branch, ricochet (Connally turns) 2nd hits JFK in throat, then Connally ("magic bullet") 3rd hits JFK in head, massive tissue damage, fatal JFK Assassination November 22, 1963 The "Its not significant but everyone wants to know it anyway" slide Grassy Knolls, Open Umbrellas, E. Howard Hunt, etc. etc.... Two big questions: Conspiracy theories: The Mob MilitaryIndustrial Complex USSR Lee Harvey Oswald Warren Commission (1964) CIA paints Oswald a "madman;" acting w/o ideological motivation House Select Committee on Assassinations (1976) "Probable conspiracy" How? (Lone gunman? Magic Bullet?) Why? (Conspiracy) Building moved? Similarities? Shadow Across Face? Where is the conspiracy? Occam's Razor: "Pluralitas non est ponenda sine neccesitate" ("plurality should not be posited without necessity.") Plain English: don't look for complex answers if the simplest solution is plausible Lee Harvey Oswald Committed Marxist; Cuba was a "test case" for Marxism in the Americas Oswald repeatedly acts out violently; sees himself in grandiose terms: 1957 argument in Marines leads to gunshots; 1958 courtmartial for fighting with officers; 1959 defects to USSR, slits wrists; 1963 plans assassination Gen. Edwin Walker; then kills JFK wants his life to "stand" for something big Most people initially angry because Oswald wasn't "important enough" to have killed the U.S. President Jackie Kennedy: "[JFK] didn't even have the satisfaction of being killed for civil rights. It had to be some silly little communist." Dallas Ass't DA during questioning: "at times I had to walk out of the room because in another few minutes I was going to beat the shit out of him." CIA denies very existence of Operation Mongoose! All wounds can be accounted from three shots Both Oswald and Ruby had "motive" Operation Mongoose, led by RFK, intended to "finish" Castro probably brought about the death of JFK Malcolm X: assassination was a case of the "chickens coming home to roost" Conclusions for 11/22/63 When faced with a nervous public and the potential for WWIII, the CIA still lied to the Warren Commission!! (Or none of this is true because they got to me) "Coverup" existed, but not of killers THIS lying, more than anything, fuels wilder claims of a broader "cover up" (Oliver Stone, JFK) LBJ Born Stonewall, TX, 1908, near Johnson City Politics: Populist!!! 1st of 5 children Parent's personalities affect Lyndon's Lyndon Baines Johnson Seen as redneck Southern conservative by most Washington liberals Real concern for "the people," sees himself as outsider, defender of the public interest As a teacher, he focuses on underserved MexicanAmerican population in Cotulla Active in New Deal As his influence increases "the people" come to include gas & oil industries, defense contractors (Sun Belt), corporate farms 1937 to U.S. House, 1948 wins Democratic Primary for Senate by 87 votes ("Landslide Lyndon") Steady Rise to Power LBJ has strong faith in consensus Style the same: mentor creates power base from within Oddly, all next steps opened by death of mentor (conspiracy? Feelings of guilt and desire to "prove" oneself to be worthy of mentor's acceptance?) Compromise possible with USSR, racists, anyone! Great at personal, oneonone situations Terrible at public speaking and mass politics Internal/psychological pressures exposed when he campaigned Bluffed or withdrew name from race in 1948, 1964, 1968 Physically ill 1937, 1941, 1966 1968 refuses to run for reelection for U.S. Presidency National Forum Probably most powerful Senator of the 20th Century Controlled committees, agenda, perqs never forces opponents into ideological corners Style not suited to national politics JFK trounces him at "mass politics" VicePresidency not a "mentor" position Kennedy Administration works to "I took the oath, I became President. But for millions of Americans I was still illegitimate, a naked man with no presidential covering, a pretender to the throne, an illegal usurper. And then there was Texas, my home, the home of both the murder and the murder of the murderer. And then there were the bigots and the dividers and the Eastern intellectuals, who were waiting to knock me down before I could even begin to stand up. The whole thing was almost unbearable." Vows to "outKennedy" Kennedy, wants to be "loved" Scarred by Assassination Johnson's Goals Maintain "hardline" against Communism Blind to pitfalls of escalation in Viet Nam Press for legislative action on points where Kennedy only paid lip service But agenda set beyond the White House (e.g., King and Civil Rights) Leaves LBJ vulnerable Emerging voters: youth, women, Hispanics, blacks Redesign the "New Deal Coalition" Discussed more fully in separate section Johnson doesn't understand ("have a feel for") foreign policy LBJ & Viet Nam Wants to keep war FROM the public As Special Envoy to SE Asia, he believes foreign crowds "love" him because he distributed ballpoint pens and cigarette lighters LBJ: "I felt a special rapport with all those Asians. I knew how desperately they needed our help and I wanted to give it. I wanted them to have all the dams and all the projects they could handle." No declaration, no taxes, no call for sacrifice When trouble starts neither the U.S. public nor Congress feels compelled to support him Contrast this to way that factions supported G.W. Bush and the Iraq War from critics and protesters High Point of Modern Liberalism "The Great Society" Environmental causes (Social Gospel Prog.) Use the full power of the federal government (National Progressives) Further the growth of U.S. business overseas and placate organized labor (Corporate Liberalism) Agenda already set for LBJ LBJ then acts forcefully to pass GS responds to pressures Pressure #1: Civil Rights 1964: Civil Rights Act Title VII outlawed discrimination in the workplace re: race religion national origin Sex 1965 Voting Rights Act Pressure #2: Environment Industrial pollution and innercity grime Rachel Carson Water Quality Act, 1964 Wilderness Preservation Act, 1965 Air Quality Act, 1965 Clean Water Restoration, 1966 Silent Spring (1962) Pressure #3: Poverty Meaningful and important to LBJ (sees poverty in Texas) Michael Harrington, The Other America (1962) To be poor to be like "an internal alien, to grow up in a culture that is radically different from the ones that dominates the society." 2025% U.S. in poverty (35M !!!) 40% in poor housing LBJ: "This Administration today ...declares unconditional war on poverty" "Hand up, not a handout" But fears about welfare ("the dole") strong with LBJ and Democrats in Congress (experiences of Depression) Therefore, Great Society promotes "Opportunity" Economic Opportunity Act, 1964 OEO, Job Corps, Vista, Head Start (800k children fed each year) Poverty (cont.) "War on Poverty" This is NOT simply writing checks but providing jobs, education, medical care, and job training: "opportunity" Manpower Development and Training Act, 1964 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 1965 (Fed aid to local schools) Public Works Act, 1965; Model Cities Program, 1966 Medicare (for elderly, 79m since 1965), Medicaid (for poor; 200m) LBJ works to help large segments of nonvoting citizenry Civil Rights Act, 1964: "I think we just gave the South to the Republicans" EOA: Democrats "will probably lose a million votes a month" as a result Politics of the Great Society Programs harm Democratic strongholds Community poverty programs undermine big city machines LBJ harms relations with organized labor Political suicide by a political mastermind? Only makes sense if we credit Johnson with acting for principles, not politics Jack Nicholson in Five Easy Pieces (1970) She doesn't "make the rules" but there is power in conforming to the rules (even if they are stupid rules) Generational assumptions of 1940s and 50s too CONFORMIST Unintended Political Consequence #1: Great Society = Youth Protest The Voice of Protest = the Voice of "Youth" Very vocal politically 1962, Students for a Democratic Society Unintended Political Consequence #1 Youth gain (too much) political legitimacy 19671973, AntiWar Protest Active as a result of Civil Rights Free Speech Movement A majority of elig. voters, But little staying power Who were the "counterculture"? Affluent, collegeeducated, white Upset with (in rank order) Response: Disillusionment parents racism corporate conformity (need to "sell out" individuality to get a job) pollution Vietnam (after 1965) "Turn on, tune in, and drop out" Culture not politics Middlebrow By 19723, "movement" completely absorbed by U.S. pop culture Riches to Rags lifestyle Still: a lot of very idealistic and committed democrats 1965: "Hippies" get start in HaightAshbury district of San Francisco 1968: "The Summer of Love" 1969: Woodstock, NY 1969: Altamont, CA The "New Music" Bob Dylan Janis Joplin Miles Davis Civil Rights Model followed by others "Unintended" Political Consequences #2 Cesar Chavez Is it "American" to treat people unequally? Is it legal? United Farm Workers Grape boycott, 196570 "Chicano" instead of "MexicanAmerican" (not all approved!) 1969: La Raza Unida AIM organized in 1968 1973 standoff at Wounded Knee "NativeAmerican" replaces "Indian" "1st Nations" American Indian Movement (AIM) 1969 Stonewall Riots, NYC Sexual Practice Laws voided APA rescinds view that homosexuality a "mental disorder" Gay & Lesbian Discrimination "Women's Liberation" Most powerful 1963: The Feminine Mystique 1966: National Organization of Women 1968: "Women's Liberation Movement" "Ms." not "Mrs." Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) Proposed 1923 1972: Congress approves. 1982: defeated; not enough states ratify. VERY DRAMATIC EFFECT ON MEN (especially in an era when the economy hits traditionally Great Society only "throws money at problems." But... Other forms of Backlash: Critics argue that... Great Society "undermines traditional values." But... Premarital sex rates on the rise in the 1930s Divorce rate rises in 1940s Drugs and Alcohol abuse in the 1950s Most programs underfunded as result of Viet Nam and recession (like New Deal) By 1968, funding already cut for most programs Nixon fully funds EEOC and Head Start, and they work! America was changing well before 1964; Modernization from 19201960 Unleashes "Interest Group" politics that undermines democracy. But... While some think of the 60s as a "Counter Culture," I would argue they are the culmination of 60 years of Modernization; hardly "counter" to the values of modernity This is typical of American politics Jas. Madison, Progressives Now more inclusive, therefore groups more varied and more contentious (consensus seems positively foolish; rule by political activism of BASE voters; But, Real Political Consequences for Democrats Idealism of youth a doublededged sword Motivation for fundamental change Easily dissipated through pop culture Activism as "trendy" or "chic," blunts criticism Interest Group politics splits forces Generally agree on philosophical principles But very hard to manage w/in a political coalition Democrats and Ralph Nader 2000 Presidential campaign Rising opposition to Great Society liberalism Defeat of Goldwater in 1964, but rise of the "New Right" Opposition to liberal idealism (not liberalism, per se) Conclusions 1. Efforts of the Great Society are praiseworthy Poverty in the U.S. falls, life expectancy rises, infant mortality falls Opportunity extended to millions who otherwise were excluded Sense of optimism and mission for the U.S. Civil Rights legislation begins to overturn inequality (ends v. Education, 19652000 Benefits of Great Society Economic Opportunity Quality of Life 29,000,000 students benefit from college loans 60% of today's students receive loans from GS programs 1965: 41% complete high school; 81% today 1965: 8% complete college; 24% today 800,000 grade school children have preschool care through Head Start; school breakfast 39 million have Medicaid; 79 million have Medicare 420 playhouses, 120 opera companies, 400 dance companies, 230 orchestras 35 new National Parks, 155 scenic river valleys, 800 recreational trails Environmental regulations begin to curb most problematic pollutants 30,000,000 families purchased homes for the first time under Ginnie Mae/Fannie Mae Democracy 1964: 300 minority officials elected nationwide; 2000: 10,000+ Constitutional rights upheld through Civil and Voting Rights Acts 2. "Sixties" shift the meaning of "fitting into" America Conclusions (cont) 3. "Sixties" challenges much about America, but relies on old assumptions Progressivism the future is better than the past Authoritarian Federal leaders will always do what is right Cold War fear of communist domination should the U.S. fail in containment Old view was assimilation be like us or you will be an outcast New view was multicultural unity comes from acceptance of diversity (true American asset for the 21st century... this is hard to do, but we've been trying for 30+ years) When these assumptions fail (domestic unrest, Watergate, and Viet Nam) U.S. confidence will be severely undermined [Add in two major recessions and things get a little nasty] 4. LBJ Changes nature of Presidential Powers Continued by Nixon Conclusions Unlike FDR, LBJ's Presidential powers are "hidden" from American public "Imperial Presidency" weakens institutions that LBJ could control Rapid swings in politics Congress, Cabinet, Party But leads to strengthening of press and populism (primaries) irony, U.S. politics "selfcorrecting" War and Great Society were "his" When setbacks occur, opponents attack Cycle of exaggerated expectations and criticism (seen most clearly in Clinton presidency) 5. After all is said and done, LBJ still accomplished more than any other single President in the area of Civil Rights (with the exception of Lincoln) Conclusions (cont.) LBJ: "That young hero I replaced may have done something, but I did more." If you think race relations are better today than 1963, and if you understand where race relations were in the U.S. in 1963, then LBJ is chiefly responsible. Sadly, this legacy is destroyed by Viet ...
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