lab 6 - GEOL 1404 —— Historical Geology Lab...

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Unformatted text preview: GEOL 1404 —— Historical Geology Lab Introduction to Fossils Name: Part 1. Please answer the following questions on a separate piece of paper using the provided lab manual and your textbook. Fossils 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) What is a fossil? What is the difference between a body and a trace fossil? Give an example of a trace fossil. List three different ways in which an organism may be preserved as a body fossil. Why is the fossil record biased toward marine organisms with hard parts? List three requirements that must be met before a fossil can be classified as an index fossil. What is taxonomy? What is the purpose of the Linnaean classification system? Evolution 1) 2) 3) In your own words define the term evolution. The distribution of Earth’s fauna has continuously changed over time (see Table 1). How does your definition of evolution help to explain this observation? Explain the difference between divergent evolution and convergent evolution. Mass Extinctions 1) 2) 3) 4) When have mass extinctions occurred in Earth’s history? List the events in order from oldest to most recent. When did the largest mass extinction event occur? Name the main phyla that were affected by each extinction event. Were there events when phyla disappeared completely? Name these phyla and the event (time period) that caused their extinction. What are the main causes for mass extinctions? Part II. Using the provided WARD’s fossil collection, answer the following questions. DO NOT take fossils out of plastic capsules! Always return fossils to same compartment in its box! Fossil Collection 1) 2) Match the body plans of important invertebrate faunas (see attached illustrations) with the WARD’S fossil collection. On the blank spaces provided, list the number of the fossil from the WARD’s collection you believe fits the description. Choose from the following phyla: Phylum Brachiopoda Phylum Bryozoa Phylum Protozoa (Order Foraminifera) Phylum Echinodermata Phylum Mollusca, Class Cephalopoda Phylum Mollusca, Class Bivalvia Phylum Mollusca, Class Gastropoda Phylum Cnidaria Phylum Arthropoda Phylum Porifera Referring back to previously answered questions, list the time periods (or eras) during which each of the phyla were of particular importance. Have any of the phyla gone extinct? GEOLOGIC RANGE OF THE MAJOR GROUPS OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS Missesz ' PALEOZOIC I...“ c E4315? l ,.a mum lawman-kw ,PRECAMBRIAN 5-5 mm m m m m m u m mummm :1 ' mun I‘M Thallophyta‘ ' ‘ Bryophyta Tracheophyta Pretogoa Porifera Coelenmrata Brachiopuda ' Mollusca .u’ * 133 5: § imam} P“ Ehfiggq. \x 1"} v )1 V535 Amends: Anhropodé Echinodermé afiom E59 a.» Wm «W a Chor‘data The bands above glve eo’me Indication of the geologic range and relative abundance of the m and animals. An Increase In the wldth of the range band corres the nnrrnsnnndlnn nnrrlnn nf nnnlnnln tlma ajor groups of plants ponds to a relative Increase In numbers during III ‘1..qu VII VI r1! lUlVllt I-IIUI III DUHI'U" U. HHGIEHI LITE; Echmodermata _ cephalopoda ambulanral 1 llond] gronvd ' l calyx bnsol‘plales/ radlll plum: Morphological features of a blastold. | Dlagrammaflc gross-section of cephalopod. . 1‘. ' Echmodermata ‘ " ' " '. “ ‘ (,ephalopoda ‘- -— arms tentacles crown , hulor shell calyx hyponoma .A -- stem Cross-secuon Illustrating morphology of a straight nautllold. ‘ Morphological features of a cm lold. ‘. J .3; ‘ ‘ _ > ‘ l In Search Of Ancient Life: Pelgcyp'oda‘, ,‘ ' In” searcn oriA‘hcllen‘t; Lne; Echinodermataa . alavaplalew ,. - l I calcareous , lube lent V hlnne teal-h muscla‘ scar palllll' ‘ . . , ‘ V xlnus ‘l :nlcarapus _‘ * . 'palll‘al llne ’ r 1‘ :hell ‘ ’ ‘ ‘ ~ W“. ‘ ‘Mror‘p‘ht‘aloglcal features of a pelecypod shell interior. Diagrammatlc seCNon through an echlngld showlng lntem‘fl alvslruct‘ljre. kahAOIWr/VL’K In Deafqllhplm (-uml‘glclu yum Brachiopoda ’ ' ' I lbphqpbm supper! growth llna: nadlcla braclllal valve mdloluvulvo _ ‘ _ » ' - maaclu Diagram lllualrating brachlopod morphology. Arthropoda “m” ‘ ' almm llclal suluro caphalun " v ' ' I. W” lm cheek lhurax Morphological features of trilobites. 4. In Search of. Ancient Llle: ' ‘ C n? d a r 'l a Hugo" coral morphology. ll“: 273-6 ‘05 In Search‘of ‘An'ci‘ént Life: Foraminifera ‘ antelheca V - , wall or splrolheca seplal'llullnu ‘ ' 2 V . prnluculus oxlgrhal Inflow Stluctufal-oiagram of a fusullnld lest. Ga‘strobodém suluras “We anal notch outer llp Inner llp ' s nus aparluro .31" \I‘ :lphunal canal ___J Morphological lealuras of a gastropod shell. l0. Iln Search of Ancient Life;._,_’ _ Chunky-10’ " l. l mnulh tonlaclas mmmnry basal calcareous plalu Diagrammallo cross-aeolian ol a slmple Anthozoan coral polyp. ‘1._. ‘V hahAoud‘ 2. * In Search of Ancient Life: » Bryozoa operculum cloud lenlaclu mouth w holly cavlly calcareous wall A small bryozoan colony (two lndlvlduals) ln'oroas-sectlon. l '5 In Search of Anciént Life; Porifera u l he: osnulum canal splnnles allachmenl Dlagrammalic oross—sectlon of a slmple sponge. ‘* kmfléom-l 1* ...
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lab 6 - GEOL 1404 —— Historical Geology Lab...

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