lecture13 - - processes that shape the earth's surface -...

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GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 13 STREAMS - processes that shape the earth's surface - dominant method of transport of materials from high to low
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GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 13 Key terms stream river longitudinal profile stream valley floodplain drainage basin tributary drainage divide sheetflow rill laminar flow turbulent flow wetted perimeter gradient discharge traction saltation suspension base level graded stream braided vs. meandering (characteristics) sinuosity secondary flow (meander bend) bar point bar deposits flood levees avulsion
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GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 13 Outline 3. Hydrologic cycle and streams 1. Importance of streams 4. Stream ` s functions; hydraulic parameters and load 5. Base level and graded steam concepts Today: 2. Streams vs rivers; stream components 6. Types of streams 7. Floods
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GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 13 Stream vs river Streams are any flowing body of water Rivers are major branches of a stream system Fraser River, BC Stoney Creek, Texas • Stream flow f (plate tectonics, climate system) - doesn't matter size LARGE stream - stream - but specifically, it is small, so we can call it a creek - need tectonics to build the relief and channel the water that falls from sky - how arid the climate is - contributes to channelization
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GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 13 Hydrologic cycle Hydrologic cycle - the movement of water between the ocean (hydrosphere), air (atmosphere), and land (lithosphere). Energy source: Sun PROCESSES: precipitation evaporation transpiration runoff infiltration streams - water has a choice - can either infiltrate the cracks of the earth - or does not infiltrate and does not totally get evaporated.
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GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 13 Hydrologic cycle Distribution of Earth’s water 1. Oceans: 2. Freshwater: 2a. 2b. 2c. 97.2% 2.8% glaciers: groundwater: other lakes: streams: atmosphere: soil moisture: 2.15% 0.62% 0.009% 0.005% 0.0001% 0.001% So, why do we care? Lectures 15 &16 Lecture 17 Lecture 14 Lectures 19 & 20 - although it might not be a vast amount of water - the work that is accomplished by streams is huge
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GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 13 Streams are major geological agents of change in landscapes (transfer material from the highs to the lows – plane out relief ) Importance Most cities are built on floodplains of rivers Streams provide pathways for inland colonization of continents e.g. Jacques Cartier Lewis and Clark Agriculture - break up and transport material - land becomes flat - in terms of history - help to explore new land - helps explain the expansion of civilization
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GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 13 Streams are also excellent playgrounds … Importance
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GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 13 1. valleys : sloping area around the stream Stream system components 2. channels : bottom of valley, where water flows
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2012 for the course GEO 1111 taught by Professor Dumas during the Winter '09 term at University of Ottawa.

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lecture13 - - processes that shape the earth's surface -...

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