Lecture14 - GROUNDWATER GEO 1111 Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 14 Key terms groundwater porosity permeability unsaturated zone water table

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GROUNDWATER GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 14
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Key terms groundwater porosity permeability loosing stream gaining stream arcy’s Law unsaturated zone water table ne of saturation Darcy s Law hydraulic gradient spring drothermal spring zone of saturation groundwater reservoir aquifer hydrothermal spring geyser karst aquiclude aquitard unconfined aquifer sinkholes stalactite/stalagmite lumn confined aquifer (artesian) artesian well (flowing or not) column cone of depression subsidence GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 14
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Outline Today: 1. GROUNDWATER: definition, importance and distribution Groundwater reservoirs 3. Groundwater movement 2. Groundwater reservoirs 4. Features associated with groundwater 5. Problematic issues associated with groundwater GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 14
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Hydrologic cycle (review) istribution of Earth’s water Distribution of Earth s water Oceans: .2% ctures 1. Oceans: 2. Freshwater: 97.2% 2.8% Lectures 15 &16 2a. glaciers: oundwater: 2.15% Lecture 17 2b. 2c. groundwater: Other: 0.03% 0.62% Today’s lecture lakes: atmosphere: soil moisture: 0.009% 0.005% 0.001% Lectures 19 & 20 GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 14 streams: 0.0001%
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Definition, importance and distribution Percentage of population reliant on groundwater for domestic use Groundwater is a major economic resource … ~ 25-40% in Canada (~3 million people) t ~70% in Maritimes but ~70% in Maritimes GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 14
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Definition, importance and distribution Groundwater: the water that lies beneath the ground surface. Hydrosphere's fresh water: 1. Glaciers (~77%) 2. Groundwater (~22%) In general, ~ 15% of total precipitation ends up as groundwater – process: ? roundwater is slow moving but not static: ? Groundwater is slow moving, but not static: • recharges (rain) • erodes (sinkholes) GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 14 • discharges (feeds rivers) • deposits (stalactites)
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Misconception: groundwater is found in underground lakes and rivers Definition, importance and distribution (true but quite rare) GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 14
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Groundwater reservoirs roundwater found in ores soil and sediment + actures bedrock Groundwater pores of soil and sediment fractures of bedrock pores fractures “dry”so i l “saturated” soil Solid Water Air GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 14
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Groundwater reservoirs ontrols on availability of groundwater Controls on availability of groundwater Porosity ( Φ ): percentage of voids or pore space (vs. total volume). Determines how much groundwater can be stored. Φ = f(grain roundness, sorting, and cementation) texture rounded sorted = high porosity) (… rounded, … sorted high porosity) GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 14
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Groundwater reservoirs ontrols on availability of groundwater Controls on availability of groundwater Permeability: capacity of a rock or sediment to transmit a fluid. Function of pore SIZES and INTERCONNECTIVITY. p GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 14
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Groundwater reservoirs Porosity and permeability ?
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2012 for the course GEO 1111 taught by Professor Dumas during the Winter '09 term at University of Ottawa.

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Lecture14 - GROUNDWATER GEO 1111 Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 14 Key terms groundwater porosity permeability unsaturated zone water table

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