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Lecture14 - GROUNDWATER GEO 1111 Introduction to Earth...

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GROUNDWATER GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 14
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Key terms d t groundwater porosity permeability loosing stream gaining stream Darcy’s Law unsaturated zone water table zone of saturation Darcy s Law hydraulic gradient spring hydrothermal spring groundwater reservoir aquifer i l d geyser karst aquiclude aquitard unconfined aquifer sinkholes stalactite/stalagmite column confined aquifer (artesian) artesian well (flowing or not) cone of depression subsidence GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 14
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Outline Today: 1. GROUNDWATER: definition, importance and distribution 2 Groundwater reservoirs 3. Groundwater movement 2. Groundwater reservoirs 4. Features associated with groundwater 5. Problematic issues associated with groundwater GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 14
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Hydrologic cycle (review) Distribution of Earth’s water Distribution of Earth s water 1. Oceans: 97.2% Lectures 15 &16 2. Freshwater: 2.8% 2a. 2b glaciers: groundwater: 2.15% 0 62% Lecture 17 2b. 2c. Other: 0.03% l k 0.62% 0 009% Today’s lecture lakes: atmosphere: soil moisture: 0.009% 0.005% 0.001% Lectures 19 & 20 GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 14 streams: 0.0001%
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Definition, importance and distribution G d t i j i Percentage of population reliant on groundwater for domestic use Groundwater is a major economic resource … ~ 25-40% in Canada (~3 million people) but ~70% in Maritimes GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 14
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Definition, importance and distribution G d t th t th t li Groundwater: the water that lies beneath the ground surface. Hydrosphere's fresh water: 1. Glaciers (~77%) 2. Groundwater (~22%) In general, ~ 15% of total precipitation ends up as groundwater – process: ? Groundwater is slow moving but not static: ? Groundwater is slow moving, but not static: • recharges (rain) di h (f d i ) • erodes (sinkholes) d it ( t l tit ) GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 14 • discharges (feeds rivers) • deposits (stalactites)
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Misconception: groundwater is found in underground lakes and rivers Definition, importance and distribution (true but quite rare) GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 14
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Groundwater reservoirs Groundwater found in pores of soil and sediment + fractures of bedrock of soil and sediment pores fractures “dry” soil “saturated” soil Solid Water Air GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 14
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Groundwater reservoirs Controls on availability of groundwater Porosity ( Φ ): percentage of voids or pore space (vs. total volume). Determines how much groundwater can be stored. Φ = f(grain roundness, sorting, and cementation) texture ( rounded sorted = high porosity) (… rounded, … sorted high porosity) GEO 1111 – Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 14
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Groundwater reservoirs Controls on availability of groundwater Permeability: capacity of a rock or sediment to transmit a fluid. Function of pore SIZES and INTERCONNECTIVITY.
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