lecture15 - OCEANS I waves GEO 1111 Introduction to Earth...

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Unformatted text preview: OCEANS I waves GEO 1111 Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 15 Key terms salinity heat capacity tent heat longshore drift longshore currents tties latent heat wave wind wave jetties groins breakwater wave components ( , H, T, C) orbital motion (wave) deep-water waves beach nourishment hurricane storm surge shallow-water waves breaker tch tsunami run-up elevation undation distance fetch inundation distance GEO 1111 Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 15 Outline 1. Ocean water Today: WAVES 3. Waves and humans 2. WAVES (4. TIDES and CURRENTS next lecture!) GEO 1111 Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 15 Ocean water Oceans: 97% of Earths water Seawater covers 71% of Earths surface, three huge interconnected basins: in three huge interconnected basins: 1) The Pacific Ocean 2) The Atlantic Ocean 3) The Indian Ocean GEO 1111 Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 15 Ocean water Area of the Oceans GEO 1111 Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 15 pacific ocean is deeper - getting smaller because there is an active margin around- Atlantic Ocean - newer ocean, therefore, the oceanic crust is more buoyant- as the ocean floor gets colder - more dense - it tends to sink iew from the top View from the top In the N. Hemisphere landmasses dominate GEO 1111 Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 15 iew from the bottom View from the bottom In the S. Hemisphere oceans dominate GEO 1111 Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 15- affects climate and ocean currents alinity - lts dissolved in water Chemistry of the oceans Salinity salts dissolved in water (Na + ~30%, Cl- ~ 55%) alinity ually measured t Salinity - usually measured ppt (). Ave. ocean salinity: 35 ppt* Ave. river water salinity: 0.5 ppt or less. * 35 grams of salt /1000 grams of seawater What are the sources for these dissolved ions? GEO 1111 Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 15 most comes from rivers - run-offs from the continents- also input from volcanoes - ions that get incorporated into salt water- also lose some of the salt - chemical reactions Properties of water ater properties High heat capacity: ... igh tent heat: Water properties Consequence : water is an cellent heat distributor High latent heat: ... excellent heat distributor moderates Earths climate GEO 1111 Introduction to Earth Systems Lecture 15 water has a very high heat capacity - means the energy you need to put into water for it to increase by one degree- latent heat - energy released when there is a phase change.- sweat - heat from the body is sucked out by the production of water- release of energy due to the condensation of water therefore temp of water is relatively stable Properties of water onsequence of waters high heat capacity Range of ocean T << land T: Range of ocean T << land T: Consequence of water s high heat capacity On land [ T ] = 146 On land [ T ] = 146 C- Highest = 58 Highest = 58 C (recorded in C (recorded in )- Lowest =...
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lecture15 - OCEANS I waves GEO 1111 Introduction to Earth...

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