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Unformatted text preview: BIO 1140 SLIDE #1 Unit 2 Information flow Unit 2 What explains the variety of systems and their regulation? DNA RNA Protein The Central Dogma Replication Transcription Translation Reading Chapter 13.3,13.4 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Objectives DNA Replication in eucaryotes What is a gene? Transcription in eucaryotes Translation in eucaryotes Regulation BIO 1140 SLIDE #2 BIO1140 CELL BIOLOGY Examples of netiquette rules concerning peer respect (from Centre for University Teaching) Be sure your device sound is set to off at the beginning of class Stay on task. Activities such as Web surfing or gaming may distract classmates. Listen to your classmates if they complain to you that your use is distracting BIO 1140 SLIDE #3 Transcription and Translation Fig. 14-3, p. 299 Unit 2 Information flow- translation occurs in cytosol in prokaryotes and cytosol/cytoplasm in eukaryotes but may not always- not just floating around the cell BIO 1140 SLIDE #4 Translation is mRNA-Directed Polypeptide Synthesis: Key Points to Remember tRNAs are small RNAs of a highly distinctive structure that bring amino acids to the ribosome adaptor hypothesis Ribosomes are rRNA-protein complexes that work as automated protein assembly machines Translation initiation brings the ribosomal subunits , an mRNA, and the first aminoacyl-tRNA together Polypeptide chains grow during the elongation stage of translation Termination releases a completed polypeptide from the ribosome Unit 2 Information flow BIO 1140 SLIDE #5 Multiple ribosomes simultaneously translate a single mRNA Newly synthesized polypeptides are processed and folded into finished form Finished proteins contain sorting signals that direct them to cellular locations (next Unit) Base-pair mutations can affect protein structure and function Within the cell are multiple sites of protein synthesis; cytoplasm, membrane-bound and organelle. Location and function are related! Translation is mRNA-Directed Polypeptide Synthesis: Key Points to Remember Unit 2 Information flow BIO 1140 SLIDE #6 Translation Overview Unit 2 Information flow Assembly of amino acids into polypeptides occurs on ribosomes P, A, and E sites on ribosome used for stepwise addition of amino acids to polypeptide as directed by mRNA All steps require protein factors (initiation factors = IF or eIF elongation factors = EF or eEF) and energy supplied by GTP See notes- tRNA - to explain how you take info from RNA to protein- play a crucial role in translation- ribosomes are the basis for translation, assemble everything-- ribosomes do not really exist in the cytoplasm - but there are sub-units available that assemble- initiation - "ribosomal" units brought together - still call them ribosomes even though it's not there- in prokaryotes - can have transcription/translation at the same time- many locations for mutations - some appear to be free in the...
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