to Layer 1 at the sender's end, along the wire (or whatever communication medium connects the two machines), and from Layer 1 up to Layer 7 at the receiver's end. The sender’s data packet gathers instructions as it moves down through the layer stack and appends them to itself, based upon a concept known as encapsulation. At the receiver's end, as each layer receives the data, the packet discards the header (or de-encapsulates it) and interprets the content. It passes it to the layer above it, which then performs the same process, once it completes its own data processing. The IEEE recognized that the Data Link Layer implemented so many operations that it could be split into two sections as actual hardware and software were deployed in networks. The resulting Logical Link Control sublayer handles the interaction between
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