ECE 231 -2

# ECE 231 -2 - ECE-231 Circuits and Systems I Spring 2011...

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ECE-231 Circuits and Systems I Spring 2011 Session 2 Professor Stewart Personick Office: ECEC Room 321 [email protected]

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Controlled Sources
10000 i2 node e 0.1 volt (voltage source) i3 node b - + 2500 7500 node a i4 10000 node c Controlled current source: i = β x i2 example: β = 100 Controlled Sources: Current controlled Current Source

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10000 i2 node e 0.1 volt (voltage source) i3 node b - + 2500 7500 node a i4 10000 node c Controlled current source: i = β x i2 example: β = 100 Controlled Sources: Current controlled Current Source i2 = 0.1 Volts /(7500 + 2500 ) = 0.00001 Amperes = 10 microAmperes
i2 node e 0.1 volt (voltage source) node b - + 2500 7500 node a I5=i3+i4 5000 node c Controlled current source: i = β x i2 example: β = 100 10000 in parallel with 10000 = 5000 Controlled Sources: Current controlled Current Source i2 = 0.1 Volts /(7500 + 2500 ) = 0.00001 Amperes = 10 microAmperes

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Controlled Sources: Current controlled Current Source i2 node e 0.1 volt (voltage source) node b - + 2500 7500 node a i5=i3+i4 5000 node c Controlled current source: i = β x i2 example: β = 100 i2 = 0.1 Volts /(7500 + 2500 ) = 0.00001 Amperes = 10 microAmperes vce = i5 x 5000 = -i x 5000 = - 100 x 10 microAmperes x 5000 = -5 Volts
Controlled Sources: Current controlled Current Source i2 node e 0.1 volt (voltage source) node b - + 2500 7500 node a I5=i3+i4 5000 node c Controlled current source: i = β x i2 example: β = 100 i2 = 0.1 Volts /(7500 + 2500 ) = 0.00001 Amperes = 10 microAmperes vce = -100 x 10 microAmperes x 5000 = -5 Volts The application of a 0.1 Volt “input voltage” (between node a and node e) results in a -5 Volt “output voltage” (between node c and node e). The circuit produces a “voltage amplification ratio” of: -50, between it’s input and its output .

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Transistor circuit (grounded emitter) b c e - + 10000 ( power supply feeder resistance) 7500 10000 (input resistance of the next amplifier stage) To voltage source (power supply) i2 -i3 -i4 The collector current (-i3 - i4) = β x the base current (i2 + i1). A typical value of β = 100 To base “bias” current source i1 vs Input signal Output signal
node e 0.1 volt (voltage source) node b - + 5000 node a 5000 node c Controlled voltage source: v = 100 vae + - i1 Controlled Sources: Voltage controlled Voltage Source

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node e 0.1 volt (voltage source) node b - + 5000 node a 5000 node c Controlled voltage source: v = 100 vae + - i1 i1 = -99 x 0.1 Volts / 10000 Ohms = -0.00099 Amperes KVL: 5000 x i1 + 5000 x i1 + 100vae - vae = 0 vae = 0.1 Volt Two (2) equations and two (2) unknowns Controlled Sources: Voltage controlled Voltage Source
The controlled voltage source, E1, has a value which is: 100 x the voltage from + to - on its control voltage terminals. [Edit => Component=> e]

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i1 = -99 x 0.1 Volts / 10000 Ohms = -0.00099 Amperes
Controlled Sources: Voltage controlled Current Source node e 0.1 volt (voltage source) node b - + 5000 node a 5000 node c Controlled current source: i (Amperes) = .001 Amperes/ Volt x vae (Volts) i1

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node e 0.1 volt (voltage source) node b - + 5000 node a 5000 node c Controlled current source: i (Amperes) = .001 Amperes/ Volt x vae (Volts) i1 -10000 x 0.001 x 0.1 Volts + vce - 0.1 Volts = 0 vce = 1.1 Volts; i1 = -0.0001 Amperes KVL: 5000 x i1 + 5000 x i1 + vce - vae = 0 vae = 0.1 Volt i1 = -0.001 Amperes / Volt x vae Three (3) equations and three (3) unknowns Controlled Sources: Voltage controlled Current Source
The controlled current source, G1, has a value which is: .001A/V x the voltage from + to - on its control voltage terminals.

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