Chap 12 ppts - Hematocrit, plasma & serum Hematocrit =...

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1 fig 12-1 Hematocrit = volume of red cells (~45%) Plasma = fluid in fresh blood Serum = fluid after blood has clotted Plasma = serum + fibrinogen (& other clotting factors) Normal volumes: blood ~5.5L, plasma ~3L, rbc’s ~2.5L
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2 Systemic, pulmonary circulations fig 12-2 2 hearts, each with 2 chambers Left heart to all body except lungs (systemic) Right heart to lungs (pulmonary) Systemic arteries: oxygenated blood Pulmonary arteries: deoxygenated blood Systemic veins: deoxygenated blood Pulmonary veins: oxygenated blood Atria: receive blood from veins Ventricles: pump blood to arteries
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3 flow = Δ pressure / resistance Later you will see that: blood pressure = cardiac output (flow) x peripheral resistance It is Δ pressure that drives flow
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4 Resistance resistance = 8 x η x L π x r 4 where: η = viscosity (“eta” mostly depends on hematocrit) L = length of vessel r = radius of vessel conclusion: the body regulates blood flow by altering vessel radius halving the radius 16x resistance
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5 Heart structure fig 12-6
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6 Heart valve structure fig 12-7 atrioventricular valves: like parachutes aortic & pulmonary valves: like pockets
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7 Heart muscle structure fig 12-9 striated, branched cells, 1 nucleus/cell, connected by intercalated discs spontaneous contraction, regulated by autonomic NS, hormones coronary blood flow regulated by active hyperemia (see later)
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8 Conducting system consists of modified cardiac muscle cells fig 12-10 Sequence: sinoatrial node atrial pathways atrioventricular node Bundle of His only path to ventricles Purkinje fibers
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9 Conducting system properties Spontaneous depolarization all conducting system shows spontaneous depolarization intrinsic rates: SA node (70/min), AV node (40/min), Purkinje fibers (20/min) therefore SA node sets heart rate Conduction rates slowest: AV node, ~ 100 msec fastest: Purkinje fibers all ventricular muscle contracts together (apex slightly ahead)
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10 Cardiac action potential (ventricular muscle) RMP close to K + equilibrium potential depolarization: Na + channels open/inactivate plateau phase: Ca ++ channels open, K + channels close repolarization: Ca ++ channels close, K + channels open refractory period ~250 milliseconds heart must relax before contracting again fig 12-12
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11 Cardiac action potential (conducting tissue) RMP drifts to threshold (pacemaker potential) K + channels closing funny Na + channels open/close T-type Ca ++ channels open depolarization: L-type Ca ++ channels open repolarization: Ca ++ channels close, K + channels open plateau phase: Ca ++ channels open, K + channels close repolarization: Ca ++ channels close, K + channels open refractory period ~250 milliseconds fig 12-13
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12 Excitation contraction coupling fig 12-18
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13 Excitation contraction coupling L-type channel Ca ++ channel acts as voltage gated channel Ca ++ enters cytosol from T tubules
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2012 for the course PHSL 310 taught by Professor Ferraro during the Fall '11 term at SIU Carbondale.

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Chap 12 ppts - Hematocrit, plasma & serum Hematocrit =...

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