Chap 15 ppts - Definitions Digestion: Breakdown of ingested...

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1 Definitions Digestion: Breakdown of ingested nutrients into forms which can be absorbed Absorption: Transport of small molecules from the GI tract into the blood Motility: Patterns of GI contraction and relaxation; tone of sphincters Secretion: Control of secretion of digestive enzymes & regulatory hormones
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2 Gastrointestinal functions Digestion: mouth, stomach, small intestine Absorption: small intestine Secretion: mouth, stomach, small intestine Motility: entire GI tract fig 15-2
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3 GI functions: mouth, esophagus, stomach, pancreas fig 15-3a
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4 GI functions: biliary system, small intestine, large intestine fig 15-3b
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5 Fluid exchanges fig 15-5 Oral intake: 1200 ml/day Secretions: 7000 ml/day Absorption: 8100 ml/day Feces: 100 ml/day Significance: potential for ↑↑ fluid loss if absorption compromised
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6 Microanatomy of GI tract fig 15-6 Mucosa: absorptive epithelium, endocrine/exocrine cells, muscularis mucosa Submucosa: blood/lymph vessels, submucosal nerve plexus Muscularis externa: circular muscle, myenteric nerve plexus, longitudinal muscle Serosa, mesentery
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7 Intestinal structure: villi fig 15-7 Surface area: “tennis court”, villi, microvilli (next) Life cycle: ~5 day life cycle, generated at base of villi, shed from top
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8 The intestinal cell fig 15-8 Surface enzymes: released into intestine as cells released Microvilli = “brush border”
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9 Source: ~ half of daily caloric intake ~ 70% as starch (potatoes, pasta, rice, bread), ~ 30% as sucrose, lactose cellulose: β glucose links not digestible, forms “bulk” of diet Starch: α 1 4, 1 6 links hydrolyzed by maltose, maltotriose Intestinal disaccharidases: maltase : hydrolyses maltose, maltotriose glucose sucrase : hydrolyses sucrose glucose + fructose lactase : hydrolyses lactose glucose + galactose Absorption: from small intestine into blood capillaries Glucose, galactose by Na + linked cotransport at luminal border Fructose by facilitated diffusion at luminal border Glucose, galactose, fructose by facilitated diffusion at basolateral surface
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2012 for the course PHSL 310 taught by Professor Ferraro during the Fall '11 term at SIU Carbondale.

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Chap 15 ppts - Definitions Digestion: Breakdown of ingested...

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