Sinha Final Exam Study Guide

Sinha Final Exam Study Guide - I88 210 Final Exam Review...

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Unformatted text preview: I88 210 Final Exam Review for Y. Sinha \ Cultural Evolution — Arguments by authority, could answer questions. — Hierarchy; the more important you are, the higher up you are. — The King ruled, like God. 0 Cannot Challenge their authority. Enlightenment — The foundation of IifestyEe today. - Started as a simple idea; “we wilt not longer base things off tradition or authority but through logical reasoning.” - Imperialism; justifying through proof, visual, etc. 0 Lead to biology, physics, social sciences, etc. 0 During this era, Europeans started traveling and observed that cultural/ways to approach life are different. John Locke - Came out of enlightenment. — People are a product of their environment. 0 You were born as a blank slate, who you become depends on your environment. More rational environment [I more rational person. (vice-versa with irrational too). - Society I] individual - Influences - Individual I] Society - Want this kind 0 You can judge a society on how rational they are overall. - Less rational [I more rational Edward Tyler - Patrilineal; you specify both who the mother and father are. — Monotheism; belief in one god. — Matrilineal; you specify just who the mother is. — Polytheism; belief in more than one god. - Primitive Promiscuity; do not keep track. Hawaiians. Colonialism - Europeans feel justified to travel to other countries and take them over. They were going to help lower rational nations became higher ranked. Reservations; make them farmers not hunters. As the places become more rational, the only way to keep them from needing your help is to set a standard that cannot be changed, and so race was put into account. Fixed cation. Ethnocentric - Judging other cultures from the values of your own culture based off their ‘7 own values. Social institutions are being decided by individuals. Freud - Freud takes on religion, individual psychology and how religion helps psychologically to understand religion. — Was a cultural evolutionist. — Thought that Australians were stuck in underdeveloped society. — Thought to ultimately achieve growth society needs to drop religion and take a scientific view. Thought religion was a way to control, irrational/underdeveioped people. - Societies always need to restrain individuals. m Social institutions put a limit on social desires. They also prohibit actions, creating psychological ambivalence; fascination and exposition (wanting to do something but being repulsed by it at the same time). Displacement of forbidden desire; focusing on buttons instead of sex. Societies evolve social institutions making them become more elaborate and past their value. 0 Example; church and economy. - Dialectical; two things that simultaneously cause each other. 0 A [I B o B i} A o All social relationship. — Personality; before you were taught anything (newborn) that was your real personality. 0 It is called the LD. - Which is dominated by the pleasure principle; seeks pleasure and wants it all the time. - Does not matter what kind of pleasure, pleasure is pleasure. - it does not know of boundaries. I it is irrational. — Counterbalancing the ID. is the Superego 0 Aiso irrational, does not allow for peoples needs. 0 Child acquires in the process of civilization. 0 Sex is wrong, stealing is wrong, killing is wrong. superego always says its wrong. 0 To develop a superego child must experience pain. — ID 1] Super Ego - Ego; ruled by reality principle. — Super ego and 5D never go away. — Freud’s Stages of Development controls the ID through society. 0 Oral stage - Weaning a kid away from breast-feeding. Child realizes that mom is not a part of the baby (ego starts developing). 0 Anal stage - Potty training, when you can and cannot go. o Oedipus Complex - Final stage, father becomes rival in the affection for mother because child realizes they are in a relationship too. 0 Castration anxiety; child fears that father could get rid of him if sees as competition for mother. 0 Rate of therapy; makes unconscious desires conscious. Australians and Freud - Todism; most primitive form of religion. Understand this and you can understand religion. 0 Clan: group of people, trace ancestors back to mythological figures. “Dream time”; spirit animals walked across Earth, that land is now sacred. - Cannot eat/kill the animal of your clan. - First taboo in todism, can’t kill animals of your own clan. 0 Exception; only as a group for a ceremony. (Totemic feast; the fantasy of re—killing the father). - Second taboo in todism, strict rule of clan exogamy. 0 Must marry outside of your group. 0 Endogamy; everyone in your clan is related to you. 0 Exogamy; marry inside your group (Australians). - Primal Horde; Freud’s idea that people live in an organization where the father has access to all females, the children (boys) get kicked out as they get older and die or start their own group. o The group of boys together, kill the father. - Guilt over killing the father is where the concept of religion and God came from. 0 Origin of clan exogamy. - Two strict rules of Totemism, do not have sex with woman of your clan and do not kill father again. (Kill sacred animal, sex with those in your clan). - Collective Representation; a symbol that represents a group, such as the Churinga. - Totemic taboo and “obsession behavior”; just like narcotics engage in obsessive behavior to mask a hidden desire, religion deafs with hidden desires too. - Religious institutions help resolve individual psychological conflicts, collectively as a group. Freud’s model; understand individual to understand society. E. Wilson — The successful individual is the one who passes his genes to the next generation. “Selfish gene”; your purpose for living is his idea. Sociobiology; what motivates individuals from a genetic or biological perspective. E. Durkheim - Came up with Structural Functionalism. 0 Understanding the individuat will not help you understand society. Society does not reduce to psychology. - He is the father of sociology, and is influential in anthropology. - Social facts;not legal rules but rather things everyone knows. 0 You learn them as a child. As you grow up, you internalize the social facts, which is called socialization; meaning you develop a conscience and start monitoring your own behavior. - Formal rules; speeding = ticket. ~ Informal rules; tell racist joke = grandma yells at you. — Collective Conscience of Society 0 All of the rules, both formal and informal. o Durkheim said, you can use sociology or society to explain individual behavior, but not vice versa. - Altruistic Suicide - Die instead of dishonor the values of society. I Egoistic Suicide . Die to prove individuality. - Anomic Suicide . Die from feeling alienated from society. I Fatalistic Suicide 0 Die from hopelessness, cannot live up to expectation. — Sacred VS. Profane o Profane; ordinary. 0 Sacred; beyond ordinary. o Durkheim, therefore, argues Totemism is a religion because they were making a distinction between everyday and sacred. More on Australia — Fictive Kin; a relationship where you treat someone as a relative. - Churinga; a small stone object that is sacred. u Totemism is redefining the natural world in terms of cultural categories. \\ Durkheim’s Model; functionalism. o If you look hard enough you find that social customs have an actual function. Structural functions; you need to understand the structure of society then the functions of which the society serves. Mechanical Solidarity; like the USA, economically interdependent. Organic Solidarity; symbolically interdependent. C \ Q” a, Kr 5’7 Q” a i' B. Malinowski - Rationalist. - Thought all social institutions are related. - Manifest; obvious reasons. - Latent; not obvious reasons. — Heaviiy influenced by Freud, so beiieved sociai institutions also satisfied psychological needs. ~ Field Work; you must go to the society and study them yourself. The method you should employ while doing this is called participant observation; watch as much as you can however you should participate too. 0 Subjective Understanding; how the natives see the world around them. Kula exchange along with magic. The secondary exchange was what the real reason behind Kula is. Levy Bruhl - Argued that Europeans and non-Europeans have a very different approach to the world. He argued that while Europeans thought in terms of cause and effect, non-Europeans were stuck in pre-logicai/pre—scientitic thinking patterns. Radicliff Brown Wanted to understand the structure of a society and what holds it together. 0 External forces are not enough to keep people in line. you must buy into the rules of society;sentimental commitment to social rules. Otherwise, society will fall apart. - Ties to becoming an adult. 0 Ritual relationships; impose actions and behaviors toward certain objects or rituals. 0 Social rules; guide behavior. 0 Rituals give sentimental attachment. 0 Every social institution is related to every other social institution; also to understand one you must understand all. 0 Religion and ritual; marriage, rice, etc. o Sacial structure; the sum total of roles within society. 0 All symbols, roles, rules are interconnected. M. Harris — Idea that social institutions serve a practical function, for Harris the practical function is seen in economical health. — Cows, are crucial to maintain the population of bulls, which do the plowing of Indian fields. — Pigs, are taboo in the bible because they eat the same stuff as humans. R. Rappaport — Functionalist approach of anthropology to understand those from Tsembaga. — Slash and Burn; you cut all the vegetation in the plot of land around the village and leave ail the vegetation there to let it dry and the ground will get the nutrients. - Kaiko Ritual; at the end of the war all the adult pigs are killed to repay the death of the ancestors. - Reason behind everything they do is land and vegetation. Ethnocentrism - Ethnocentrisrn of Dutch; had though that the King was in charge of the system, however they were totally wrong. 0 Social contract system; give up some of your rights in order to have protection from the State. — Ethnocentrism of Green Revolution; when production in Bolly decreased because of a pest problem and they started Josing water. — Their reiigion was directly linked to their agriculture but people did not seem to realize this. K. Marx, Mode of Production — There is always a dialectical relationship between social structure and nature that society is defined by the interaction of these two. To understand society, you must understand nature (and vice versa);mode of production. — Hydraulic Soiidarity; irrigation that was closely tinked to logic of society that it formed a society together. — Sociogenic System; term that Lansing came up with to explain Bollynees social structure; meaning that ritual and religion create and define social relationship in the context of productive activities. Created in the context of religion but aiso serve economic functions. Hindu Cosmology — Different deities are interconnected, creating a symbotic connection throughout the island with different villages. — Up stream temples are more holy than the downstream ones, which are more local. Life VS Cleansing. Downstream of cleansing of population or death, upstream cleansing of life. - Agama Tritha; “holy water religion". - Religious Tax; tax that peasants were paying to their temple was in terms of labor, you did work for your temple didn’t pay them. ~ Dewi Danu;Godciess of Crater Lake. M. Harris VS M. Douglass - Harris, food resources taken away. - Douglass, food logic of classification of animals in bible, don’t eat because it's abomination. “internal” Logic of Culture Classifications — The whole point of symboiic anthropology is to understand the internal logic of the way natives see the worid. - Primary socialization, learned as a child. Need to understand each other’s actions and words. Things such as waving, smiling, peace sign, stupid shit, etc. A.l. Hallowell - Five basic orientations that every culture presents to the individual. The individual makes sense of the world around them through these. All of these are learned through primary socialization, while you were a child. 0 Self-Orientation - Basic definition of what is and is not apart of you and your body. What does and does not count? Here we believe if souls, others believe a bit of you is left on everything you touch (Hindu). 0 Object - Defines your relationship to other people, plants, objects, etc in your world. Will define your relationship to various objects in your environment. 0 Spatiotemporal I Is time linear or circular? Different societies have different ways to explain time. lf there are spirits, where are they? Society gives you a map defining how the universe is laid out. 0 Motivation - Different cultures have different motivations for people to do things. They are not innate but learned. such as in America, money. 0 Normative - The normative standards of society. Define things such as what is a good~looking person, painting, man, woman. Social Stratification — Having different statuses in a society. Non-stratified society; hunter gather. Stratified society; job specializations. 0 Secondary socialization; mechanism which stratification is created through in the first place. Special training. Formal recognition of secondary socialization, make social stratification itself become institutionalized, and this knowledge is new property of the sub-group. - “Jati” in Hindu means spices. Associates different sub-groups in society as though they were a compietely different species. Have their own language, signs, etc. Such as doctors. - ln highly stratified societies, social stratification becomes part of the naturai order of the world. Evans Pritchard — A student of Malinowski, who opposed his teacher’s thoughts and said that it was possible for a culture to have rational institutions but not rational people. — A central concept; is interconnected with other concepts in a society and that is how they get their meaning. — Witchcraft/Sorcery o Witchcraft and sorcery is closely rotated to two other institutions; witchdoctors and magic along with oracies and divination. o Believes that cultural concepts are like a spider web because every concept is connected to every other concept. 0 Promotes political authority of the king. The aristocrats are accused of witchcraft. o Expiains why things are harmful but does not explain cause and effect. Granary Example. Karl Marx’s - Called his theory, historical materialism interested in history because he feit society was ultimately determined by its materiai base, which is where ideoiogy, etc came from. So to understand a society, look at its economic system. - Marx‘s was a dialectical thinker. - lndivid uai 9—) Society ¢———> Nature t Mode at Production sit Economics Social Organization ideology — Humans depend on nature for their basic needs; and so nature is shaping society/form it can take. Society aiso changes the natural environment around them to create social organizations that wouldn’t be possible without the attering of the environment. ~ Labor; defines who you are as an individual because its’ defining your interaction with the world around you. — Mode of production; the dialectical relationship between society and nature, creates to mode of production of society. — All of the material technology needed to maintain particular economic system is called the means of production. This has to do with the relationship between nature and society. 0 When a society moves up in the evolutionary scale, they are changing their means of production. Each new stage is more rational than the previous and implies a more rational social relation; increase in stratification, more specialized to do one and only one thing, more rational ideology. Greater inequality. - Surplus is excess. When a society is able to create surptus then it is able to free individuals and allow some of them to live off the surplus. 0 Kings, priests, aristocrats, etc. 0 Men over women. 0 The Great Chain of Being; a prominent ideology of the Middle Ages. Hierarchy was used to justify why certain individuals should have access to things others do not. God. Arch angels, middle ages, the Pope, Holy roman Emperor, various Kings, more Aristocrats, Trades people, Serf, dog, pig, last one being the Devil. - The more important one were drawn bigger. So itjustifies why people have to do things they way they are because they are closer to god, you are closer to a dog. — For Marx's, societies are dynamic. He is considered the polar opposite of functionalism. o Functionalism; mechanisms of holding a society together. 0 As societies advance, there is a greater division of labor, which will be linked to social stratification. - The Ruling Class; is exploiting the working class. The ruling class will always be smaller than the size of the working class. . Instability of society is a structural conflict. The conflict wasn’t created by individuals but rather as a by—product of the structure of society (meaning the Mode of Production). - When a real evolution happens, it is always about changing the mode of production. This is when ideology, social organization, economic system will also change. Evolutions are never complete; they will still borrow elements of the past. Mode of Production ll. Mode of production thesis Anti-thesis - Marx’s thinks that it is much more rational to compare people on whether they are good people or not instead of on how much money they have to their name. Capitalism is the ultimate in rational societies and most advanced or evolved society that humans have yet to create. Rationality of its division of labor. As this continues, a marker of a person’s status is reduced even more to rich VS poor. Under capitalism society is divided into two segments 0 Bourgeoisie, ruling class. 0 Proletariat, working class. Ascribed;Feudal, European society. 0 Born into your status and you cannot change it. Achieved; Class system. 0 Status determined by individual achievement, the ideology of capitalism. We say people are where they are because they had either achieved it or did nothing, but the truth is most people were actually born into money. ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2012 for the course ISS 210 taught by Professor Zimmerman during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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Sinha Final Exam Study Guide - I88 210 Final Exam Review...

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