horizontal_angles - In partnership with Horizontal Angles...

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Unformatted text preview: In partnership with Horizontal Angles CIVL04C03 Lecture 4: Horizontal and Vertical Angles (using the theodolite) Keith Miller Lecture 4 Horizontal Angles Objectives o Types of instrument: o Theodolites and Total Stations o Instrument errors: o Instrument tests o Observing methods used to minimise errors in observations o Angle measurements in control surveys. o Which is followed up in Surveying (2) o Angle measurements for detail surveys o Measuring angles towards production of a survey plan Lecture 4 Horizontal Angles - Instruments Introduction Part 1 Types of Instrument o Optical Theodolite o Electronic Theodolite o Total Station Lecture 4 Horizontal Angles - Instruments Objectives o The theodolite is used for accurate angular measurement. While they all rely on optics, they are classified into two types: • Optical, where readings are provided on a scale. • Electronic, where readings are provided digitally on a screen. o The Total Station combines the electronic theodolite with electronic distance measurement. Lecture 4 0.2” Optical Theodolite Horizontal Angles - Instruments The Wild T3, a 0.2” instrument. The reading shows 73 ˚ 25’ 59.6” The lines in the top display are a Vernier that must be aligned before reading. Lecture 4 1” Optical Theodolite Horizontal Angles – Instruments The Wild T2, a 1” instrument. The reading shows 94 ˚ 12’ 44” The lines in the top display are a Vernier that must be aligned before reading. Lecture 4 Components of the Optical Theodolite Plumb the instrument over a survey mark. Read horizontal directions and vertical angles are read from two graduated glass circles. Natural light illuminates the circles. Horizontal Angles – Instruments Lecture 4 Electronic Theodolite Horizontal Angles – Instruments The electronic theodolite provides readings digitally. Lecture 4 Total Station The total station is an electronic theodolite, but also has a means of measuring distances electronically. Horizontal Angles – Instruments Lecture 4 Portability Horizontal Angles – Instruments Use in this Module o At this stage we will not be using total stations or electronic means of measuring distance. o For practical work we will be using electronic total stations that measure horizontal and vertical angles only. o We will use traditional methods for measuring distance, and this will be covered later. Lecture 4 Horizontal Angles - Instruments Today we will discuss the theodolite, and the its application in measuring horizontal angles. Lecture 4 Horizontal Angles - Observing Introduction Part 2 Observing Procedures o Instrument Errors o Instrument Tests o Observing and Booking Sources of Instrument Error o Instrument is not level....
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This note was uploaded on 03/25/2012 for the course CIVIL 201 taught by Professor Keithmiller during the Spring '12 term at Acton School of Business.

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horizontal_angles - In partnership with Horizontal Angles...

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