Exam numba 2

Exam numba 2 - EXAM#2 PSYCHOLOGY 101 SPRING 2011 REVIEW...

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EXAM #2 – PSYCHOLOGY 101 – SPRING, 2011 – REVIEW SHEET Hi, the exam will be 56 multiple choice items. The exam will be on the chapters below (and material covered in class as it relates to that material): Chapter four – Sensation and Perception 1. What are the physical and psychological characteristics of sound and light (e.g., amplitude corresponds to loudness; wave length frequency corresponds to what types of colors?) and what is used to measure them (e.g., hertz)? Sight Light waves vary in wavelength (distance between peaks) and amplitude (height) Amplitude brightness; wavelength color Wavelength long- red; short- violet Properties of light: wavelength, amplitude (to light), purity (to saturation) Sound Sound waves are vibrations of molecules, which means that they must travel through some physical medium (like air) Generated by vibrating objects, by forcing air past a chamber, or by suddenly releasing a burst of air (i.e. clapping) Characterized by amplitude loudness, wavelength pitch, and purity timbre Wavelengths frequency (measured cycles/second) or hertz…higher frequencies have higher pitch; amplitude decibels (dB) 2. Place versus Frequency (volley) theory of hearing; trichromatic versus opponent process theories of color vision; rods vs. cones. PLACE v. FREQUENCY Place : perception of pitch corresponds to the vibration of different portions, or places along the basilar membrane; wave peaks in particular place; proposed by Helmholz o Helps us perceive high frequency sounds o High frequency peaks at the beginning of the basilar membrane, low peaks are at the end Frequency : perception of pitch corresponds to the rate, or frequency, at which he entire basilar membrane vibrates; whole membrane vibrates in response to sounds o Helps us perceive low frequency sounds/pitch TRICHROMATIC v. OPPONENT PROCESS Trichromatic : first Thomas Young modified by Hermann von Helmholtz, holds that the human eye has three types of receptors with differing sensitivities to different light wavelengths; Helmholtz believed specialized receptors sensitive to wavelengths of red, green, or blue o People can see all colors because eye does color mixing Opponent process theory: Ewald Hering, holds that color perception depends on receptors that make antagonistic responses to three pairs of colors o Red v. green; yellow v. blue; black v. white RODS v. CONES rod : a specialized visual receptor that play key role in night vision and peripheral vision; more sensitive than cones to dim light; more in outer areas of retina (more rods than cones) o give perception of color with activated cones : specialized visual receptors that play a key role in daylight vision and color vision; provide better visual acuity: sharpness and precise detail ; located closer to retina o fovea: tiny spot in center of retina that contains only cones; visual acuity is greatest here
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o 3 Different kinds of cones: they are sensitive to different kinds of wavelength. Some
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Exam numba 2 - EXAM#2 PSYCHOLOGY 101 SPRING 2011 REVIEW...

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