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Lecture 3 - Biological Bases of Behavior Psychology 101...

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Biological Bases of Behavior Psychology 101 David L. Penn, Ph.D.
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Components of the Nervous System Central Nervous System Brain Spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System
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The Nerve Cell Types of nerve cells: Neuron; glial cells Parts of the Neuron Cell body Dendrites Axons and Axon terminals Myelin Sheath Synapse
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Demyelination- Multiple Sclerosis Autoimmune disease in which the body destroys its own myelin Damaged myelin = messages moving along the nerve are transmitted more slowly or not at all Symptoms Visual Blurriness, blindness Motor Paralysis, atrophy, spasms Sensory Numbness, pain, burning Balance Shaking, vertigo Cognitive Dementia, memory loss
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Types of Neurons Afferent (Sensory neurons) Efferent (Motor neurons) Interneurons
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Transmission of Neural Information The “sodium-potassium” pump Polarization, depolarization, and hyperpolarization Action potentials All-or-Nothing principle Post-synaptic potential
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Neurotransmitters Description Chemical messengers General types: Excitatory and inhibitory Specific types: Acetycholine Norepinephrine Dopamine GABA Serotonin Endorphins
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Table 3.1 Common Neurotransmitters and Some of their Functions
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Neurotransmitters, continued Agonists “mimic” neurotransmitters Antagonists “block” neurotransmitters
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Major Structures of the CNS Spinal cord
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