Midterm 2 Review

Midterm 2 Review - ANTH 123: Midterm Exam 2 Study Guide...

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ANTH 123: Midterm Exam 2 Study Guide October 3, 2011- November 11, 2011 Key Terms Tell: a mound of old housing, layered one on top of another, place occupied over long period of time, structure built on top of each other Known for decorated walls, frescos on the walls Ex: Catalhyuk Bucranium: Horns (and head) of wild bulls used as house decoration (or shrine?) Hearth group: associated with Southeast Asia Long houses; community dwelling up to 300 ft long that are often provided into “hearth-groups” of nuclear families, presided over by head of supra household Palm thatch: found in Yucatan, Mexico and low tropical environments Advantages: smoke goes through thatch and out the top (healthier for women); permeable so heat can escape; located in low tropical environment; very eco-friendly Wattle-and-daub: mud plaster Neolocal: predominant way to live in US, married couple establishes a new residence Patrilocality: living where husbands parents lived Uxurolocality: living with wife’s parents Longhouses: allows large labor pool for working land, herding animals, or crafting goods; childcare more readily available than in nuclear family residences; concern for protecting/storing domesticated plants and animals; chance for defense Living together with domesticated animals (part of Neolithic package) Puebloan peoples of US south west are adept at living together in large agglutinated residential groups Deathway: Menhirs: Example: Carnac; One or more upright stone(s) Over 3000 upright stones at Carnac Generally arranged in patterned alignments with significance for solstice or equinox Often 1-15feet tall
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Tallest known at Locmariaquer (75 feet) Sometimes carved is shallow relief 19 th century ink drawing; broken fragments of tallest menhir at Locmariaquer Erected upright with robes, wooden levers, or abundant human labor Dolmens: Example: Carnac; communal tombs Built away from settlement Often buried under earthen mound (barrow) Can contain multiple chambers and passageways Minimal grave goods Offerings often left around entrance Evidence of feasting near entrance Ecocide: large scale destruction of natural environment Example: Rapa Nui Henges: circular arrangement of upright posts or stones Defined by ditch and embankment Up to 1600 feet in diameter Very common in England and Scotland Example: Stonehenge Abandonment: Push factors o Political instability or conflict o Undesirable social/religious situation o Economic instability/lack of opportunity o Resource depletion o Drought (in dry climates) o Climate change (e.g. sea level rises) Pull Factors o Economic opportunity elsewhere o More stable political situation o Greater religious/social tolerance Ex: Chaco Canyon, NM o Rapa Nui **Wilcox article Moai : **Terry Hunt and Carl Lipo article
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Dendrochronology: looking at annual ring growth in trees to date the tree and see the climate over the years (drought v. a lot of moisture); then can see when great houses of Chaco Canyon
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2012 for the course ANTH 123 taught by Professor Johnson during the Fall '08 term at UNC.

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Midterm 2 Review - ANTH 123: Midterm Exam 2 Study Guide...

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