1980 - 1980: Henry Spira and "reintegrative...

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1980: Henry Spira and "reintegrative shaming" Henry Spira , a former seaman and civil rights activist, became the most notable of the new animal advocates in the United States. A proponent of gradual change, he introduced the idea of "reintegrative shaming," whereby a relationship is formed between a group of animal rights advocates and a corporation they see as misusing animals, with a view to obtaining concessions or halting a particular practice. His first campaign was in opposition to the American Museum of Natural History in 1976, where cats were being experimented on, research that he persuaded them to halt. His most notable achievement was in 1980, when he convinced the cosmetics company Revlon to stop using the Draize test , whereby ingredients are dripped into the eyes of rabbits to test for toxicity . He famously took out a full- page ad in several newspapers, featuring a rabbit with sticking plaster over the eyes, which asked, "How many rabbits does Revlon blind for beauty's sake?" Revlon stopped using animals for cosmetics testing,
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donated money to help set up Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing , and was swiftly followed by other leading cosmetics companies. [79]
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1980 - 1980: Henry Spira and "reintegrative...

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