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Reproduction and development - Reproduction and development...

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Reproduction and development A newt lung cell stained with fluorescent dyes undergoing the early anaphase stage of mitosis Nearly all animals undergo some form of sexual reproduction . [16] They have a few specialized reproductive cells , which undergo meiosis to produce smaller, motile spermatozoa or larger, non-motile ova . [17] These fuse to form zygotes , which develop into new individuals. [18] Many animals are also capable of asexual reproduction . [19] This may take place through parthenogenesis , where fertile eggs are produced without mating, budding, or fragmentation . [20]
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A zygote initially develops into a hollow sphere, called a blastula , [21] which undergoes rearrangement and differentiation. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location and develop into a new sponge. [22] In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement. [23] It first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber, and two separate germ layers — an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm . [24] In most cases, a mesoderm also develops between them. [25] These germ layers then differentiate to form tissues and organs. [26] Food and energy sourcing Main article: Animal nutrition All animals are heterotrophs , meaning that they feed directly or indirectly on other living things. [27] They are often further subdivided into groups such as carnivores , herbivores , omnivores , and parasites . [28] Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a heterotroph that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked). [29] Predators may or may not kill their prey prior to feeding on them, but the act
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of predation always results in the death of the prey. [30] The other main category of consumption is detritivory , the consumption of dead organic matter . [31] It can at times be difficult to separate the two feeding behaviours , for example, where parasitic species prey on a host organism and then lay their eggs on it for their offspring to feed on its decaying corpse. Selective pressures imposed on one another has led to an evolutionary arms race between prey and predator, resulting in various antipredator adaptations . [32] Most animals indirectly use the energy of sunlight by eating plants or plant-eating animals. Most plants use
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