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Chapter 5 - The Central Nervous System.ppt - Lauralee...

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Mark Paternostro • West Virginia UniversityLauralee SherwoodChapter 5The Central Nervous System
Organization of the Nervous SystemThe nervous system consists of the:the
AfferentDivisionsTwo afferent divisions carry information intothe CNS:somaticcarries sensory information fromskin,skeletal musclesvisceralcarries sensory information fromsmooth muscle, glands and organs
Efferent DivisionsTwo efferent divisions carry informationout of the CNS:somatic nervous systemsuppliesskeletalmusclesautonomic nervous systeminnervatessmooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandsTwo autonomicيصداراإللصاdivisions:sympatheticandparasympatheticةسناجتملا ريغو ةسناجتملا
Fig. 5-1, p. 136Afferent division of PNS*Efferent division of PNSEnteric nervous system*Somatic nervous systemAutonomic nervous systemEffector organs(made up of muscle and gland tissue)Smooth muscleCardiac muscleExocrine glandsSome endocrineglandsStimuliindigestivetractSensorystimuliPeripheralnervoussystem (PNS)OutputfromCNS toperipheryBrain andspinalcordCentral nervous system(CNS)Inputto CNSfromperipheryMotorneuronsSkeletalmusclesDigestiveorgansonlyAutonomicnervoussystemSympatheticnervoussystemParasympatheticnervous systemEntericnervoussystemVisceralstimuliAfferentdivisionEfferentdivisionSomaticnervoussystemKEYOrganization ofthe nervoussystem
Neurons ClassesAfferent neurons:sensory neurons thatsupply inputto theCNS about theenvironmentEfferent neurons:carry instructionsfrom CNS toorgans,muscles and glandsInterneurons:responsible forintegrating afferentinformation and formulating an efferentresponse
Peripheral axon(afferent fiber)Efferent neuron**Efferent autonomic nerve pathways consist of a two-neuron chain betweenthe CNS and the effector organ.Effector organ(muscle or gland)AxonterminalsCentralnervous system(spinal cord)Peripheralnervous systemCellbodyCentralaxonSensoryreceptorAfferent neuronInterneuronAxon(efferent fiber)AxonterminalsCellbodyFig. 5-2, p. 137Structure and location of the three functionalclasses of neurons
Glial Cellsةيقصبدلصا اايلصخDo not initiate or conduct nerve impulses.Physically, metabolically, and functionallysupport neurons.4 major types:AstrocytesةيمجنلصااايلخلصاOligodendrocytesنصغتلصاةليلصصقMicrogliaةريغصلصاةيقصبدلصااايلخصصلependymal cellsةيبصعلصاةناطبلصااايلصخ
Fig. 5-3, p. 138MicrogliaSpace containingcerebrospinal fluidيعاخنلااا لائاسلاااEpendymalcellNeuronsainerstitialuidيح جيساان جرااف نياااب عاقاوOligodendrocyteAstrocyteCapillary
Table 5-1 p138
Protection of the CNSEnclosed byhard, bony structures.

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Term
Spring
Professor
Basem Marie
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