Organic Chemistry 1

Organic Chemistry 1 - CM1000, CM1002, CM2101 First file of...

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CM1000, CM1002, CM2101 First file of lecture overheads for Organic Chemistry now available First Organic Chemistry lecture: Monday February 2 (Week 24) To access file: http://chemweb.ucc.ie Undergraduate 1st Year CM1000 Lecture Notes [Scroll down to 'Dr. Humphrey Moynihan'] Lecture Package 1 Lecture Package 2 Lecture Package 3
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WARNING! WARNING! This document contains visual aids for lectures It does not contain lecture notes It does not contain actual lectures Failure to attend lectures can harm your performance in module assessment Printing out handouts of PowerPoint documents From ‘File’ menu, select ‘Print’ Set ‘Print range’ to ‘All’; set ‘Print what:’ to ‘Handouts’ Set ‘Slides per page’ to ‘3’ (recommended to facilitate taking of notes), ‘4’ or ‘6’ Click on ‘OK’
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Organic Chemistry 1 Part 1 of an introductory course in organic chemistry for CM1000, CM1002, CM2101 and related modules Dr. Humphrey A. Moynihan Kane Bldg 410 h.moynihan@ucc.ie
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Late 18 th century: Compounds from living organisms - Organic Compounds from lifeless matter – Inorganic Organic compounds thought to have ‘vital force’ Ammonium cyanate (from mineral sources) ‘Inorganic’ Urea (from urine) ‘Organic’ Wöhler 1828 Ammonium cyanate Urea (Heat) Discredited concept of ‘vital force’
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1800 on Elemental combustion analysis Identify and quantify elemental composition Provides empirical formulae Lactic acid from milk (i.e. ‘organic’) Lactic acid Combustion CO 2 H 2 O O 2 1.00 g 1.47 g 0.60 g 0.51 g Mol. Wt. 44 18 32 No. of Moles 0.033 0.033 0.016 1 C 2H 1O
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Lactic acid composed of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen Fixed proportion: 1C:2H:1O •Empirical formula: CH 2 O Majority of ‘organic’ substances and many ‘inorganic’ composed of Carbon, Hydrogen and maybe other elements Mid 19 th Century: re-define organic substances Those composed of Carbon, Hydrogen (usually) and other elements (maybe) 1850-1860: Concept of Molecules Atoms of Carbon and other elements connected by covalent bonds Hence, fixed proportions of elements
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C-C N-N O-O Bond Dissociation Energy (kJ mol -1 ) 348 163 157 Carbon-Carbon bonds: especially strong covalent bonds Carbon: unique in its ability to catenate [can form chains of atoms] Forms molecules composed of C-C bonds C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Linear molecules Branched molecules Cyclic molecules
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Organic molecules = Carbon-based molecules Organic chemistry = Chemistry of carbon-based molecules Some properties of organic molecules Stability : composed of stable C-C covalent bonds Defined molecular structures Defined three-dimensional shapes
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Some organic chemicals DNA Essential oils Medicines Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Excipients Materials Fuels Pigments
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Organic chemicals make up Foods and foodstuff Flavours and fragrances Medicines
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Organic Chemistry 1 - CM1000, CM1002, CM2101 First file of...

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