1669_412458_Intro to Arch test 2

1669_412458_Intro to Arch test 2 - STUDY GUIDE FOR INRTRO...

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STUDY GUIDE FOR INRTRO TO ARCHAEOLOGY TEST 2 Chapter 5- Paleolithic hunter-gatherer - A collective term for the members of small-scale mobile or semi-sedentary societies, whose subsistence is mainly focused on hunting game and gathering wild plants and fruits. Band - A term used to describe small-scale societies of hunters and gatherers, generally less than 100 people, who move seasonally to exploit wild (undomesticated) food resources. Kinship ties are important in the social organization. Ethnoarchaeology - The study of contemporary cultures with a view to understanding the behavioral relationships, which underlie the production of material culture. Lineage - A group claiming decent from a common ancestor. Chiefdom - A term used to describe a society that operates on the principle of ranking. Different lineages are graded on a scale of prestige, calculated by how closely related one is to the chief. Permanent ritual and ceremonial center. Tribes- A term used to describe a social grouping generally larger than a band, but fewer then 1,000. Unlike bands, tribes are usually settled farmers, though they can have nomadic pastoral groups. Lots of kinship ties. Segmentary societies - Relatively small and autonomous groups, usually of agriculturalists, who regulate their own affairs. Redistribution - A mode of exchange, which implies the operation of some central organizing authority, and subsequently some of them, are sent by that authority to other locations. Obsidian - A volcanic glass whose ease of working and characteristically hard flint-like edges allowed it to be used for the making of tools. Stele- A freestanding carved stone monument. Ethnography- A subset of cultural anthropology concerned with the study of contemporary cultures through first hand observation. Material Culture - The buildings, tools, and other artifacts that constitute the material remains of former societies. KEY CONCEPTS FROM CHAPTER 5: Chart for the Classification of societies: Pg 143 Methods of Social Analysis :
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-Settlement Analysis: The main method of investigating past social organization. Data are collected by survey and excavation, but the specific methods used can vary greatly depending on the society in question. -Burial Analysis: Rank and social status are best revealed by the analysis of grave-goods within individual burials -Monuments and Public Works: The scale of monuments and public works, as well as their distribution, can be a good indicator of social organization. -Written Records : An excellent source of information about the organization of early state societies. -Ethnoarchaeology : The study of living societies in order to help interpret the past, with a specific emphasis on the use and significance of artifacts, buildings and structures, and how these material things might become incorporated into the archaeological record. Finding the Individual:
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2012 for the course ANT 2100 taught by Professor Dr.geoffreyp.thomas during the Spring '12 term at FSU.

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1669_412458_Intro to Arch test 2 - STUDY GUIDE FOR INRTRO...

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