36 Respiratory System - PSL302 Lecture 36 by French Monday...

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Respiratory System: Overview of Function & Structure Outline - What are the fxns of the respiratory system? - What structures make up the respiratory system? - How is blood transported to & from the lungs? - What protects the respiratory system from pathogens/foreign particles? - How is lung function measured? Textbook reading: 569-576, 578-579 Overview of respiratory system lectures Lecture 1 Ai d l Respirato Airways and lungs alveoli Mus pleura fun Pulmonary ventilation Gas excha alveoli/blo blood/tissu ± pressures lung how much? properties Respiratory contr Exercise a l P l i l i ory system structures scles Pulmonary circulation nctions ange Gas Defense Vocalization ood ues transport Acid/base balance O 2 CO 2 + H 2 0 H + + HCO3 ± ol nd High Altitude Ai d l Respirato Airways and lungs alveoli Mus pleura fun Pulmonary ventilation Gas excha alveoli/blo blood/tissu ± pressures lung how much? properties Respiratory contr Exercise an l P l i l i ory system structures scles Pulmonary circulation nctions ange Gas Defense Vocalization ood ues transport Acid/base balance O 2 CO 2 + H 2 0 H + + HCO3 ± ol nd High Altitude - In green: Anatomy of respiratory system - In blue: Fxns of respiratory systems 1. What are the functions of the respiratory system? - Exchange of gases btwn air & blood - Cellular intake of O 2 & expulsion of CO 2 - Regulation of body pH - Acid/base balance: [CO 2 ] can affect blood pH (via carbonic acid) - Defense from inhaled pathogens/foreign particles - Mechs keep respiratory epithelium clean for improved gas exchange - Vocalization - Mvt of air across vocal cords of larynx & mvt of tongue, teeth, etc. - Exchange I: inhale O 2 enters lungs - Exchange II: O 2 enters blood (pulmonary circulation) - O 2 circulates thru body via blood ( systemic circulation ) - Cellular respiration in body: O 2 used & CO 2 expelled - CO 2 exits blood lungs exhale PSL302: Lecture 36, by French Monday, Jan. 10, 2010 1 of 6
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2. What structures make up the respiratory system? - Upper respiratory tract - Passage entry: nasal cavity & mouth - Common passageway: pharynx (back of mouth) - Food passes thru esophagus - Air passes thru trachea, larynx & vocal cords at top - Regulation of passage of food by epiglottis & vocal cords esophagus, not trachea - Lower respiratory tract - Thru larynx trachea - Branch into R & L bronchi - Branch further into microscopic alveoli Respiratory muscles - To allow air mvt in & out of lungs, change lung cavity volume - Muscles of inspiration : expand thoracic cavity - Diaphragm : contract -> push down - External intercostals (forced) - Contract -> raise ribcage - Also: scalenes & sternocleidomastoids - Muscles of expiration: shrink thoracic cavity - Elastic recoil (passive): ribcage pulled in by relaxing diaphragm - Internal intercostals (forced): contract
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