Study Guide for Exam 2 – Zoology 470 – 2012

Study Guide for Exam 2 – Zoology 470 – 2012

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Study Guide for Exam 2 – Zoology 470 – 2012 Exam format Remember that you can expect a good chunk of the exam to be short answer questions (i.e., 1-2 sentence response). Other types of questions, including identification, multiple choice, matching, and true/false, will also be present, but don't count on them being the largest portion of the exam. In addition, there has been an emphasis in class on experiments and what they tell us about mechanisms of early development. These are really important, and you should understand them thoroughly. The text should be used to reinforce in-class material. Your best study hints will come from last year’s exam. Remember that it’s on the course web site. Important reminder: You are responsible for knowing the cleavage patterns presented in Gilbert, Ch. 5, and representative examples of each . Topics for Exam 2 Cleavage and the Blastula [note: these are covered in two podcasts available on [email protected]] 1. Cleavage : What cytoskeletal systems and molecular motor protein is involved? How does the cell cycle during early cleavages differ from that of cells in the adult (somatic cells)? What are cyclins ? What are reductive cleavages ? What does this mean for the embryo? What are the basic types of cleavage , and what organisms are good examples of each type? What is the difference between radial and spiral cleavage , and what groups of organisms display these types of cleavage? How does the amount and position of yolk affect how cleavage occurs? What significant accomplishments take place during cleavage (e.g., regionalization, blastocoel formation , etc.)? How are astral microtubules thought to stimulate where the cleavage furrow forms? Can you cite an experiment that shows this? What is Rho , and why is it important in stimulating cleavage furrows? 2. Blastula structure : How does the yolk content of the egg affect blastula structure? The Anatomy of Genes What are the basic steps in the production and processing of mRNA ? How does chromatin structure affect the possibility of transcription? How do histone methylation/acetylation and DNA methylation affect the likelihood of transcription of a gene? What are the functions of the various regions of DNA associated with the production of a functional mRNA (e.g., enhancers/silencers or regulatory elements, promoter region)? What are the functions of various parts of an mRNA (e.g., introns , exons , 3'-untranslated region , poly-A "tail" )? Transcriptional regulation of specific genes - 1. DNA-binding proteins and DNA regulatory domains : In general, how do transcription factors interact with DNA? What effect does transfection of cultured cells with MyoD1 have? What role are MyoD1 , myogenin , and myf-5 thought to play in myogenesis (i.e., what are myogenic factors )? What kind of proteins are steroid hormone receptors ? What role does pax-6 ( small eye ) / eyeless / aniridia play in specifying eye structures in diverse organisms? What experiments suggest this?
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