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Unformatted text preview: Psychology Test 1 Notes Chapters 1 4 CHAPTER 1 The Nature of Psychology - Psychology: the scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence it- Behaviour: refers to both actions which we can observe directly and mental events, such as thoughts, feelings, images and psychological reactions- Critical thinking involves asking yourself the following questions: o What exactly are you asking me to believe? o How do you know? Whats the evidence? o Are there other possible explanations? Psychology as a Basic and Applied Science- Basic research: the quest for knowledge purely for its own sake- Applied research: designed to solve specific practical problems Robbers Cave Experiment- A study conducted at a summer camp for 11-year old boys- Boys are divided into 2 groups- When the 2 groups are pitted against each other, hostility developed o Competition breeds hostility- When the researchers placed the groups in situations where they were forced to cooperate with each other o Hostility decreases when people are dependent on each other- Psychologist, Elliot Aronson, and his coworkers applied the Robbers Cave techniques in a classroom procedure called the jigsaw program o The students learned that the only way to be successful is to work together and help one another Goals of Psychology 1. To describe how people and other animals behave 2. To explain and understand the causes of these behaviour 3. To predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions 4. To influence or control behaviour through knowledge and control of its causes to enhance human welfare- If we understand the causes of a behaviour and know when the causal factors are present or absent, then we should be able to successfully predict when the behaviour will occur The Importance of Perspectives- Perspectives are vantage points for analyzing behaviour and its biological, psychological and environmental causes- Six major perspectives characterize psychological thought: 1. Biological 2. Cognitive 3. Psychodynamic 4. Behavioural 5. Humanistic 6. Sociocultural The Biological Perspective: Brain, Genes and Behaviour- The mind-body problem o Is the mind a spiritual entity separate from the body? Or is it part of our bodys activities o Pythagoras, Plato and Hippocrates all believed that the brain is the seat of the mind and the intellect o Aristotle believed the min is it the heart- Mind-body dualism o The belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to the physical laws that govern the body- Monism o The mind is not a separate spiritual entity. o Mind and body are one, and mental events are simply a product of physical events o In the modern view, these mental events are the electrical and chemical processes occurring in the brain- The biological perspective focuses on the physical side of human nature- Emphasizes the role of our highly developed brain- Takes into account the biochemical processes which underlie our every thought, emotion, and action...
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- Spring '11