PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 10 - PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 10 Motivation...

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PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 10: Motivation and Emotion - Motivation : a process that influences the direction, persistence and vigour of goal- directed behaviour o Psychologists study the factors that move us toward our goals, whether they be obtaining food, a mate, success or even peace and quiet Perspectives on Motivation Instinct Theory and Evolutionary Psychology - Instinct : an inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way when exposed to a particular stimulus o Have a genetic basis o Found universally among all members of the species o Do not depend on learning o Have survival value for the organism - Nowadays, most motivation research stems from twin and adoption studies o Behaviour geneticists seek to establish how strongly heredity accounts for differences among people in many aspects of motivated behaviour - The adaptive significance of behaviour is a key to understanding motivation Homeostasis and Drive Theory - The body’s biological systems are delicately balanced to ensure survival - Homeostasis : a state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain - Maintaining homeostasis requires… o A sensory mechanism for detecting changes in the internal environment o A response system that can restore equilibrium o A control centre that receives information from the sensors and activates the response system - Homeostatic regulation can also involve learned behaviours - Drive theory : physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives, states of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension o Reducing drives in the ultimate goal of motivated behaviour - Drive theory is less influential than it was in the past Incentive and Expectancy Theory - Incentive : represents environmental stimuli that “pull” an organism towards a goal (while drives are internal factors that “push” organisms into action) - Focus attention on external stimuli that motivate behaviour - Expectancy theories of motivation include the value of incentives, but take a cognitive perspective - Expectancy x value theory : proposes that goal directed behaviour is jointly determined by 2 factors o The strength of the person’s expectations that particular behaviours will lead to a goal o The value the individual places on that goal (incentive value) o These 2 factors are multiplied, creating the equation… Motivation = expectancy x incentive value
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- Extrinsic motivation : performing an activity to obtain an external award or avoid punishment - Intrinsic motivation : performing an activity for its own sake – because you find in enjoyable/stimulating - Over-justification hypothesis : giving people extrinsic rewards to perform activities that they intrinsically enjoy may “over-justify” that behaviour and reduce intrinsic motivation - Extrinsic rewards reduce intrinsic motivation most strongly when they are tangible Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theories - Freud’s psychoanalytic theory highlighted the motivational underworld o
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