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Biological Changes Powerpoint

Biological Changes Powerpoint - Adolescent Development...

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Unformatted text preview: Adolescent Development Psychology 338 Lectures 2 & 3: Biological Development COMMON MYTHS ABOUT PUBERTY Puberty as a time of "raging hormones." Puberty has a sudden onset, beginning without warning. Puberty starts at one specific point in time. WHAT HAPPENS DURING PUBERTY? Rapid increases in height and weight. Primary sex characteristics. Secondary sex characteristics. Changes in body composition. Changes in circulatory and respiratory systems. THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Endocrine system involves glands that control bodily function through production of hormones. Hormones are chemicals that have a very specific impact on bodily structures. FEEDBACK LOOPS IN THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM A "set point" is established for levels of a particular hormone in the body. Endocrine system monitors levels and releases hormone when levels go below "set point." Likewise, production of hormone decreases when levels go above "set point." THE HPG AXIS AND PUBERTY HYPOTHALAMUS: Monitors levels of Androgens and Estrogens, and communicates with the Pituitary Gland. PITUITARY GLAND: Secretes Gonadotropins, which are hormones that control the Gonads. GONADS: (testes in males, ovaries in females) Structures that release sex hormones. ADOLESCENT GROWTH SPURT Marked increase in height and weight. Accelerated growth begins early in puberty. Growth Asynchronicity: Rate of acceleration is greater for parts of the body that are furthest from the center. Acceleration occurs earlier for females than males. THE GROWTH SPURT Gender Differences OTHER SOMATIC CHANGES THAT OCCUR WITH PUBERTY Increases in cardiovascular capacity. Increases are greater for males than females. Increase in body fat and muscle mass. For boys, muscle-to-fat ratio is about 3:1 after the onset of puberty. For girls, about 5:4. SIGNS THAT REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM IS MATURING FOR ADOLESCENT GIRLS Onset of menstruation ("menarche"). Begins at later stages of puberty. Despite popular myths, does not mark onset of puberty. Perhaps the most well-studied aspect of puberty. Some adolescent girls respond to menarche with considerable distress. SIGNS THAT REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM IS MATURING FOR ADOLESCENT BOYS First ejaculation is an important marker. But, relatively little is known about psychological impact of this event. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF PUBERTY Possible direct links between hormonal activity and behavior. Reactions of adolescent to changes taking place inside his/her body. Reactions of outside world to changes in the adolescent's body. Issues in Psychological and Social Reactions to Puberty Possible impact on selfesteem Moodiness Changes in Sleep Patterns Conflict within the Family LATE MATURATION AMONG BOYS Tend to have low self-esteem, negative self-concepts, and feel inadequate. Are seen as more immature by peers, and tend to be unpopular. But... may also have some positive features, including greater intellectual curiosity than other adolescents. EARLY MATURATION AMONG BOYS Early maturation is a risk factor for antisocial behavior. Seem to be at elevated risk for truancy, substance abuse, status violations, and academic difficulties. Antisocial behavior can persist if early maturing boys become involved with deviant peer groups. LATE MATURATION AMONG GIRLS Less research than for boys, but late maturing girls may have trouble with low self-esteem. Seen as less mature by peers and may be less popular EARLY MATURATION AMONG GIRLS Low self-esteem, high rates of depression and eating disorders, anxiety disorders. More likely than their peers to become involved in antisocial behavior. Early onset of sexual behavior. Some evidence for poor academic outcomes. Onset of Puberty and Smoking ...
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