Urban Sociolog 2nd Exam

Urban Sociolog 2nd Exam - 1a What are Kleniewskis three...

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1a. What are Kleniewski’s three periods of American urban history? For each period, what were the key economic functions or activities that employed urban workers and encouraged urban growth? (1) Commerical period- from the beginning of the European settlement (1620) to about 1850. Engaged in trade, crafts, and services, whereas most of the rest of the inhabitants made their living in agriculture. Most profitable was trade. (2) Industrial period- from about 1860-1920. Industrialization , m anufacturing establishments, factories. Different social, spatial, and residential patterns, growing rapid centralized cities. (3) Corporate period- from 1920- to the present. Production of paper profits. Conglomerates producing a wide range of goods and services. Buying and selling other companies often proves to be more profitable than producing a better product or service. Decentralized city in the corporate city (outer edges of cities). Changing role of city center. 1b. What were some important characteristics of U.S. cities in each period (e.g., key industries or occupations, layout; tall buildings; neighborhoods, technological innovations)? (1) Commercial City -small. Walking was primary mode of transportation. All cities were ocean ports. No identifiable downtowns, and businesses. Live interspersed with each other rather than in separate neighborhoods. Less class distinctions. Heterogeneous. (2) Industrial City -Size of cities grew to giant industrial cities. Working-class housing, shops, and offices were established. Separating newer housing from business and industry. Central business district was created. Densely packed areas with companies. New strictly residential and homogeneous neighborhoods were built. Working class houses built near factories and middle-class and wealthy far from the center of the city. (3) Corporate City- suburban communities that are spatially continuous with but politically independent of the central cities. Decrease size in the proportional of retail establishments and an increase in the proportion of corporate offices and business-oriented services. Differentiation of neighborhoods by social class. Wealthier residents move farther from center. Commuter. 1c. In each period of American urban history, what are two prominent cities that grew rapidly in that era and illustrate distinctive social and economic aspects of cities in each period? (1) Commercial City- Boston and New York (2) Industrial City- Philadephia and New Hampshire (3) Corporate City- Los Angeles and Houston 1d. What cities have remained among the largest US cities across different urban periods, and what cities have dropped off or recently appeared on the list of largest US cities? Largest Cities: New York, Philadelphia
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Urban Sociolog 2nd Exam - 1a What are Kleniewskis three...

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